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The preparation and publication of this literature review and monograph on this proprietary phytomedicinal product has been conducted by the American Botanical Council (ABC) for educational purposes only. This publication reflects the state of the scientific and clinical literature on this specific commercial plant-based product up to a reasonable period of time prior to the initial publication (and/or any subsequent revisions). This publication has been peer reviewed for accuracy by experts qualified in their formal training to assess the literature in various scientific disciplines related to the information included in this document.

This publication should not be interpreted as a promotion or endorsement by the authors or ABC of the specific ingredient or any product containing the ingredient or of the commercial companies affiliated with their manufacture, importation, marketing, or sale. ABC has long recognized that the pharmacological and clinical literature on specific categories of herbs and other botanically-derived ingredients used in conventional foods, dietary supplements, and/or medicinal preparations are often based on one or several leading proprietary commercial nutritional or phytomedicinal preparations and, as such, this publication reflects and acknowledges the existence of such literature as having been conducted on one or more leading products in a particular category.

This review also contains information summarized from unpublished research. In citing such data, ABC is aware that this research may not have undergone the formal peer review process that is part of the customary editorial process of publication in a scientific or medical journal. Thus, some of the data from specific unpublished research studies cited in this document might be subject to revision if the respective studies were to undergo subsequent peer review. Further, much of the pharmacological and clinical research cited in this review was conducted by members of the same research team in collaboration with academic institutions, some of whom may have a financial interest in the specific product tested. The authors of this review anticipate that future research will be conducted by other parties to help assess the safety and efficacy of this botanical material in trials that support the reproducibility of the present research.

The American Botanical Council is an independent, nonprofit research and education organization, tax-exempt under section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) code, dedicated to the rational and responsible use of herbs, phytomedicines, and related plant-based ingredients.