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CVT-E002 (marketed under the trade name COLD-fX®) is a special patented aqueous extract of the roots of North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L., Araliaceae), between 80% and 90% of which consists of the poly-furanosyl-pyranosyl-saccharides, which occur naturally in the ginseng root. Unlike most traditional and conventional preparations made from American ginseng roots, which contain the well-known saponin glycosides called ginsenosides, as well as the naturally-occurring saccharides in undetermined quantities, CVT-E002/COLD-fX does not contain ginsenosides, its biological activity presumably being based solely on the saccharide fraction (see Chemistry section below).

Quality control and quality assurance guidelines for CVT-E002 are outlined in a document titled “Quality Systems and Quality Standards of COLD-fX®.”12 Raw material of the appropriate age is obtained from a selected supplier and is tested against established specifications by CV Technologies, including identification of the correct species. In addition to chemical identity, the CVT-E002 extract is tested for physiochemical properties such as appearance, odor, pH, solubility, and bulk density; biological activity; and purity and safety including moisture content, microbiological content, and contaminants such as pesticides and heavy metals.

[Note: In the text below, the term “CVT-E002” is used to denote the patented, proprietary extract, especially when referring to basic research (e.g., chemical analyses, in vitro and in vivo pharmacology, etc.). In most cases, the term “COLD-fX,” the product’s retail name, has been used when reference is made to human clinical trials, market experience, and other situations that imply the oral dosage form available to the public. In some instances both terms are used.]