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The preparation and publication of this literature review and monograph on this proprietary botanical product has been conducted by the American Botanical Council (ABC) for educational purposes only. This publication reflects the state of the scientific and clinical literature on this specific commercial plant-based product up to a reasonable period of time prior to the initial publication (and/or any subsequent revisions). This publication has been peer reviewed for its accuracy by experts qualified in their formal training to assess the literature in various scientific disciplines and/or clinical medicine related to the information included in this document.

This publication should not be interpreted as a promotion or endorsement by the authors or ABC of the specific ingredients or any product containing the ingredients or of the commercial company or companies affiliated with their manufacture, importation, marketing, or sale. ABC has long recognized that much of the pharmacological and clinical literature on specific categories of herbs and phytomedicinal products are often based on one or several leading proprietary commercial preparations and, as such, this publication reflects and acknowledges the existence of such literature as having been conducted on one or more leading products in a particular category.

The American Botanical Council is an independent, nonprofit research and education organization, tax-exempt under section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Service code, dedicated to the rational and responsible use of herbs, medicinal plants, phytomedicines, teas, essential oils, and related plant-based ingredients.