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DESCRIPTION

DESCRIPTION

French maritime pine bark extract is made by extraction of the outer bark of P. pinaster Aiton subsp. atlantica. The French subspecies atlantica of P. pinaster differs from the Iberian (Spanish) and Moroccan subspecies by its resistance against salt1 and its profile of phytochemical constituents.2

Table 1. Abbreviations & Symbols Used in this Monograph

Abbreviation/

Symbol

Full Name

5-LOX

5-lipoxygenase

8-oxoG

8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine

ACE

angiotensin converting enzyme

ADHD

attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

ADRP

adipose differentiation-related protein

AEs

adverse effects

ALP

alkaline phosphatase

AMPK

AMP-activated protein kinase

AST

aspartate aminotransferase

ALT

alanine aminotransferase

BMI

body mass index

BP

blood pressure

CaMKII

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II

CARR U

Carratelli unit

CAT

catalase

Cmax

maximal observed plasma concentration

COX-1

cyclooxygenase-1

COX-2

cyclooxygenase-2

CRP

C-reactive protein

Cu/Zn-SOD

copper-zinc superoxide dismutase

CVI

chronic venous insufficiency

DHEA

dehydroepiandrosterone

DNP

dinitrophenyl

E2

estradiol

FEV1

forced expiratory volume

FSH

follicle-stimulating hormone

GGT

gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase

g-IFN

gamma-interferon

GI

gastrointestinal

GLUT4

glucose transporter 4

GnRH-a

gonadotropin releasing hormone antagonist

GPx

glutathione peroxidase

GR

glutathione reductase

GRAS

generally recognized as safe

GSH

glutathione

GST

glutathione-S-transferase

H2O2

hydrogen peroxide

HbA1c

glycosylated hemoglobin

HDL

high-density lipoprotein

ICAM-1

intercellular adhesion molecule-1

IGF-1

insulin-like growth factor 1

IGFBP-3

IGF binding protein 3

INR

international normalized ratio

iNOS

inducible nitric oxide synthase

IP

intraperitoneally

IQ

intelligence quotient

IQCODE

Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly

IV

intravenous

LDL

low-density lipoprotein

L-NMMA

NG-monomethyl-L-arginine

LPS

lipopolysaccharide

M1

δ-(٣,٤-dihydroxy-phenyl)-g-valerolactone

M2

δ-(٣-methoxy-٤-hydroxy-phenyl)-g-valerolactone

MDA

malondialdehyde

MMPs

matrix metalloproteinases

MMP-1

collagenase 1

MMP-2

gelatinase A

MMP-9

gelatinase B

Mn-SOD

manganese superoxide dismutase

NK-κB

nuclear-factor-kappaB

NHP

Natural Health Product

NO

nitric oxide

NSAID

non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug

OA

osteoarthritis

ORAC

oxygen radical absorption capacity

OTC

over-the-counter

pCO2

partial pressure of carbon dioxide

PK

pharmacokinetics

PLA2

phospholipase A2

PMNL

polymorphonuclear leukocytes

pO2

partial pressure of oxygen

ROS

reactive oxygen species

SOD

superoxide dismutase

TBARS

thiobarbituric reactive substances

TLR4

Toll-like receptor 4

tmax

time to maximum plasma concentration

USP

United States Pharmacopoeia

UV

ultraviolet

VCAM-1

vascular cell adhesion molecule-1

WHQ

women’s health questionnaire

WOMAC

Western Ontario and McMaster Universities

 

The fresh bark is powdered and extracted with 70% ethanol and 30% water in patented equipment allowing an automated continuous process.3 After purification of the raw extract, the aqueous solution of the extracted constituents is spray-dried. The resulting fine, brownish powder is stable for 3 years if stored in a dry, dark environment. The extract is standardized to contain 70 ± 5% procyanidins, which consist of condensed catechin and epicatechin.4