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6. Chemical analysis of the polyphenolic compounds in POM Wonderful pomegranate juice—cumulative data from 2002–2007 (Based on in-house data and data from the University of Wisconsin [Madison] and Brunswick Labs, Norton, MA). Unpublished document provided by POM Wonderful, October 2007.

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48. Ricci D, Giamperi L, Bucchini A, Fraternale D. Antioxidant activity of Punica granatum fruits. Fitoterapia. 2006;77:310–312.

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51. Rozenberg O, Howell A, Aviram M. Pomegranate juice sugar fraction reduces macrophage oxidative state, whereas white grape juice sugar fraction increases it. Atherosclerosis 2006;188:68–76.

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53. Seeram N, Adams L, Henning S, et al. In vitro antiproliferative, apoptotic and antioxidant activities of punicalagin, ellagic acid and a total pomegranate tannin extract are enhanced in combination with other polyphenols as found in pomegranate juice. J Nutr Biochem. 2005;16:360–367.

54. Sestili P, Martinelli C, Ricci D, et al. Cytoprotective effect of preparations from various parts of Punica granatum L. fruits in oxidatively injured mammalian cells in comparison with their antioxidant capacity in cell free systems. Pharmacol Res. 2007;56:18–26.

55. Shiner M, Fuhrman B, Aviram M. Macrophage paraoxonase 2 (PON2) expression is up-regulated by pomegranate juice phenolic anti-oxidants via PPARgamma and AP-1 pathway activation. Atherosclerosis. 2007; Feb 9, [Epub ahead of print].

56. Azadroi M, Schulman R, Aviram M, Siroky M. Oxidative stress in artriogenic erectile dysfunction: Prophylactic role of antioxidants. J Urol. 2005;174:386–393.

57. Ignarro LJ, Byrns RE, Sumi D, et al. Pomegranate juice protects nitric oxide against oxidative destruction and enhances the biological actions of nitric oxide. Nitric Oxide. 2006;15:93–102.

58. Xu J, Guo CJ, Yang JJ, et al. Intervention of antioxidant system function of aged rats by giving fruit juices with different antioxidant capacities. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2005;39:80–83.

59. Faria A, Monteiro R, Mateus N, et al. Effect of pomegranate (Punica granatum) juice intake on hepatic oxidative stress. Eur J Nutr. 2007;46:271–278.

60. Sudheesh S, Vijayalakshmi NR. Flavonoids from Punica granatum—potential antiperoxidative agents. Fitoterapia. 2005;76:181–186.

61. Murthy CKN, Jayaprakasha G, Singh P. Studies on antioxidant activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel extract using in vivo models. J Agric Food Chem. 2002;50:4791–4795.  

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64. Cerdá B, Espín JC, Parra S. The potent in vitro antioxidant ellagitannins from pomegranate juice are metabolized into bioavailable but poor antioxidant hydroxy-6H-dibenzopyran-6-one derivatives by the colonic microflora of healthy humans. Eur J Nutr. 2004;43:205–220.

65. Mertens-Talcott SU, Jilma-Stohlawetz P, Rios J, et al. Absorption, metabolism, and antioxidant effects of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) polyphenols after ingestion of a standardized extract in healthy human volunteers. J Agric Food Chem. 2006;54:8956­–8961.

66. Aviram M. Review on human studies on oxidative damage and antioxidant protection related to cardiovascular diseases. Free Radic Res. 2000;33:S85–S97.

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72. Fuhrman B, Volkova N, Aviram M. Oxidative stress increases the expression of the CD36 scavenger receptor and the cellular uptake of oxidized low-density lipoprotein in macrophages from atherosclerotic mice: protective role of antioxidants and of paraoxonase. Atherosclerosis. 2002;161:307–316.

73. Fuhrman B, Volkova N, Michael Aviram. Pomegranate juice inhibits oxidized LDL uptake and cholesterol biosynthesis in macrophages. J Nutr Biochem. 2005;16:570–576.

74. de Nigris F, Williams-Ignarro S, Botti C, et al. Pomegranate juice reduces oxidized low-density lipoprotein down regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in human coronary endothelial cells. Nitric Oxide. 2006;15:259–263.

75. de Nigris F, Williams-Ignarro S, Lerman L, et al. Beneficial effects of pomegranate juice on oxidation-sensitive genes and endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity at sites of perturbed shear stress. PNAS. 2005;102:4896–4901.

76. de Nigris F, Williams-Ignarro S, Sica V, et al. Effects of a pomegranate fruit extract rich in punicalagin on oxidation-sensitive genes and eNOS activity at sites of perturbed shear stress and atherogenesis. Cardiovas Res. 2007;73:414–423.

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81. Kaplan M, Hayek T, Raz A, et al. Pomegranate juice supplementation to atherosclerotic mice reduce macrophage lipid peroxidation, cellular cholesterol accumulation and development of atherosclerois. J Nutr. 2001;131:2082–2089.

82. Loren D, Seeram N, Schulman R, Holtzman D. Maternal dietary supplementation with pomegranate juice is neuroprotective in an animal model of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Pediatric Res. 2005;57:858–864.

83. Kwak HM, Jeon SY, Sohng BH, et al. Beta-secretase (BACE1) inhibitors from pomegranate (Punica granatum) husk. Arch Pharm Res. 2005;28:1328–1332.

84. Afaq F, Saleem M, Krueger C, et al. Anthocyanin- and hydrolyzable tannin-rich pomegranate fruit extract modulates MAPK and NF-KB pathways and inhibits skin tumorigenesis in CD-1 mice. Int J Cancer. 2005;113:423–423.

85. Albrecht M, Jiang W, Kumi-Diaka J, et al. Pomegranate extracts potently suppress proliferation, xenograft growth, and invasion of human prostate cancer cells. J Med Food. 2004;7:274–283.

86. Adhami V, Mukhtar H. Polyphenols from green tea and pomegranate for prevention of prostate cancer. Free Radic Res 2006;40:1095–1104.

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88. Lansky EP, Mehta R. Breast cancer chemopreventive properties of pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruit extracts in a mouse mammary organ culture. Eur J Cancer Prevention. 2004;13:345–348.

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90. Kawaii S, Lansky EP. Differentiation-promoting activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruit extracts in HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells. J Med Food. 2004;7:13–18.

91. Khan N, Hadi N, Afaq F, et al. Pomegranate fruit extract inhibits prosurvival pathways in human A549 lung carcinoma cells and tumor growth in athymic nude mice. Carcinogenesis. 2007;28:163–173.

92. Khan N, Farrukh Afaq F, Kweon M, et al. Oral consumption of pomegranate fruit extract inhibits growth and progression of primary lung tumors in mice. Cancer Research. 2007;67:3475–3482.

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95. Larrosa M, Tomas-Barberan FA, Espin JC. The dietary hydrolysable tannin punicalagin releases ellagic acid that induces apoptosis in human colon adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells by using the mitochondrial pathway. J Nutr Biochem. 2006;17:611–625.

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102. Adams LS, Seeram NP, Aggarwal BB, et al. Pomegranate juice, total pomegranate ellagitannins, and punicalagin suppress inflammatory cell signaling in colon cancer cells. J Agric Food Chem. 2006;54:980–985.

103. Prescott SM, Fitzpatrick FA. Cyclooxygenase-2 and carcinogenesis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000;1470:M69–M78.

104. Shishodia S, Adams L, Bhatt I, Aggarwal B. Anticancer potential of pomegranate. In: Seeram N, Schulman R, Heber D, eds. Pomegranates: Ancient Roots to Modern Medicine. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2006:111.

105. Afaq F, Hafeez B, Syed DN, et al. Oral feeding of pomegranate fruit extract inhibits early biomarkers of UVB radiation induced carcinogenesis in SKH-1 hairless mouse epidermis. J Nutr. 2005;35:2096–2102.

106. Ajaikumar KB, Asheef M, Babu BH, Padikkala J. The inhibition of gastric mucosal injury by Punica granatum L. (pomegranate) methanolic extract. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005;96:171–176.

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109. Seeram N, Aronson W, Zhang Y, et al. Pomegranate ellagitannin-derived metabolites inhibit prostate cancer growth and localize to the mouse prostate gland. J Agric Food Chem 2007;55:7732–7737.

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111. Harris DM, Besselink E, Seeram N. Assessment of estrogenicity of pomegranate in an in vitro bioassay. In: Seeram N, Schulman R, Heber D, eds. Pomegranates: Ancient Roots to Modern Medicine. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2006:143–155.

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118. Cerdá B, Cerón JJ, Tomás-Barberán FA, Espín JC. Repeated oral administration of high doses of the pomegranate ellagitannin punicalagin to rats for 37 days is not toxic. J Agric Food Chem. 2003;51:3493–501.

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