Get Involved
About Us
Our Members


  1. Gupta SC, Kismali G, Aggarwal BB. Curcumin, a component of turmeric: from farm to pharmacy. Biofactors. 2013;39(1):2-13.
  2. Goel A, Kunnumakkara AB, Aggarwal BB. Curcumin as “Curecumin”: from kitchen to clinic. Biochem Pharmacol. 2008;75(4):787-809.
  3. Epstein J, Sanderson IR, Macdonald TT. Curcumin as a therapeutic agent: the evidence from in vitro, animal and human studies. Br J Nutr. 2010;103(11):1545-1557.
  4. Basnet P, Skalko-Basnet N. Curcumin: an anti-inflammatory molecule from a curry spice on the path to cancer treatment. Molecules. 2011;16(6):4567-4598.
  5. Goel A, Jhurani S, Aggarwal BB. Multi-targeted therapy by curcumin: how spicy is it? Mol Nutr Food Res. 2008;52(9):1010-1030.
  6. Anand P, Thomas SG, Kunnumakkara AB, et al. Biological activities of curcumin and its analogues (congeners) made by man and Mother Nature. Biochem Pharmacol. 2008;76(11):1590-1611.
  7. Lindstrom A, Ooyen C, Lynch ME, Blumenthal M. Herb supplement sales increase 5.5% in 2012. HerbalGram. 2013;99:60-64.
  8. Lindstrom A, Ooyen C, Lynch ME, Blumenthal M, Kawa K. Sales of herbal dietary supplements increase by 7.9% in 2013, marking a decade of rising sales. HerbalGram. 2014;103:52-56.
  9. Smith T, Lynch ME, Johnson J, Kawa K, Bauman H, Blumenthal M. Herbal dietary supplement sales in US increase 6.8% in 2014. HerbalGram. 2015;107:52-59.
  10. 10a. Smith T, Kawa K, Eckl V, Johnson J. Sales of herbal dietary supplements in US increased 7.5% in 2015. HerbalGram. 2016;111:67-73.
    10b. Smith T, Kawa K, Eckl V, Morton C, Stredney R. Herbal supplement sales in US increased 7.7% in 2016. 
    HerbalGram. 2017;115:56-65.
    10c. Smith T, Kawa K, Eckl V, Morton C, Stredney R. Herbal supplement sales in US increased 8.5%in 2017. 
    HerbalGram. 2018;119:62-71.
  11. International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use. ICH Harmonised Tripartite Guideline. Stability Testing of New Drug Substances and Products Q1A(R2). Geneva, Switzerland: International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH); February 6, 2003. Available at: Accessed March 4, 2016.
  12. Nagpal M, Sood S. Role of curcumin in systemic and oral health: An overview. J Nat Sci Biol Med. 2013;4(1):3-7.
  13. Zlotogorski A, Dayan A, Dayan D, Chaushu G, Salo T, Vered M. Nutraceuticals as new treatment approaches for oral cancer – I: Curcumin. Oral Oncol. 2013;49(3):187-191.
  14. Wang LL, Sun Y, Huang K, Zheng L. Curcumin, a potential therapeutic candidate for retinal diseases. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2013;57(9):1557-1568.
  15. Zingg JM, Hasan ST, Meydani M. Molecular mechanisms of hypolipidemic effects of curcumin. Biofactors. 2013;39(1):101-121.
  16. Kapakos G, Youreva V, Srivastava AK. Cardiovascular protection by curcumin: molecular aspects. Indian J Biochem Biophys. 2012;49(5):306-315.
  17. Sahebkar A. Why it is necessary to translate curcumin into clinical practice for the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome? Biofactors. 2013;39(2):197-208.
  18. Meng B, Li J, Cao H. Antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities of curcumin on diabetes mellitus and its complications. Curr Pharm Des. 2013;19(11):2101-2113.
  19. Ali T, Shakir F, Morton J. Curcumin and inflammatory bowel disease: biological mechanisms and clinical implication. Digestion. 2012;85(4):249-255.
  20. Baliga MS, Joseph N, Venkataranganna MV, Saxena A, Ponemone V, Fayad R. Curcumin, an active component of turmeric in the prevention and treatment of ulcerative colitis: preclinical and clinical observations. Food Funct. 2012;3(11):1109-1117.
  21. Monroy A, Lithgow GJ, Alavez S. Curcumin and neurodegenerative diseases. Biofactors. 2013;39(1):122-132.
  22. Lopresti AL, Hood SD, Drummond PD. Multiple antidepressant potential modes of action of curcumin: a review of its anti-inflammatory, monoaminergic, antioxidant, immune-modulating and neuroprotective effects. J Psychopharmacol. 2012;26(12):1512-1524.
  23. Goel A, Aggarwal BB. Curcumin, the golden spice from Indian saffron, is a chemosensitizer and radiosensitizer for tumors and chemoprotector and radioprotector for normal organs. Nutr Cancer. 2010;62(7):919-930.
  24. Lao CD, Ruffin MT 4th, Normolle D, et al. Dose escalation of a curcuminoid formulation. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2006;6:10. doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-6-10.
  25. Chandran B, Goel A. A randomized, pilot study to assess the efficacy and safety of curcumin in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis. Phytother Res. 2012;26(11):1719-1725.
  26. Das AD, Balan A, Sreelatha KT. Comparative study of the efficacy of curcumin and turmeric oil as chemopreventive agents in oral submucous fibrosis: A clinical and histopathological evaluation. Journal of Indian Academy of Oral Medicine and Radiology. 2010;22(2):88-92.
  27. Sanmukhani J, Satodia V, Trivedi J et al. Efficacy and safety of curcumin in major depressive disorder: A randomized controlled trial. Phytother Res 2014 Apr;28(4):579-85 .
  28. Lopresti AL, Maes M, Maker GL, Hood SD, Drummond PD. Curcumin for the treatment of major depression: a randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled study. J Affect Disord. 2014;167:368-375.
  29. Hejazi J, Rastmanesh R, Taleban F-A, Molana S-H, Ehtejab G. A pilot clinical trial of radioprotective effects of curcumin supplementation in patients with prostate cancer. J Cancer Sci Ther. 2013;5(10):320-324.
  30. Baum L, Lam CW, Cheung SK, et al. Six-month randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, pilot clinical trial of curcumin in patients with Alzheimer disease. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2008;28(1):110-113.
  31. Baum L, Cheung SK, Mok VC, et al. Curcumin effects on blood lipid profile in a 6-month human study. Pharmacol Res. 2007;56(6):509-514.
  32. Lopresti AL, Drummond PD. Efficacy of curcumin, and a saffron/curcumin combination for the treatment of major depression: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Affect Disord. 2017;207:188-196.
  33. Rainey-Smith SR, Brown BM, Sohrabi HR et al. Curcumin and cognition: a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind study of community-dwelling older adults. Br J Nutr. 2016;115(12)2106-2113.
  34. Hejazi J, Rastmanesh R, Taleban FA, et al. Effect of curcumin supplementation during radiotherapy on oxidative status of patients with prostate cancer: a double blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Nutr Cancer. 2016;68(1):77-85.
  35. Wichtl M, ed. Brinckmann JA, Lindenmaier MP, trans. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals: A Handbook for Practice on a Scientific Basis. 3rd ed. Stuttgart, Germany: medpharm GmbH Scientific Publishers; 2004.
  36. Bruneton J. Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry, Medicinal Plants. 2nd ed. Paris, France: Lavoisier Publishing; 1999.
  37. Wang YJ, Pan MH, Cheng AL, et al. Stability of curcumin in buffer solutions and characterization of its degradation products. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 1997;15(2):1867-1876.
  38. Gordon ON, Schneider C. Vanillin and ferulic acid: not the major degradation products of curcumin. Trends Mol Med. 2012;18(7):361-363.
  39. Vareed SK, Kakarala M, Ruffin MT, et al. Pharmacokinetics of curcumin conjugate metabolites in healthy human subjects. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008;17(6):1411-1417.
  40. Hassaninasab A, Hashimoto Y, Tomita-Yokotani K, Kobayashi M. Discovery of the curcumin metabolic pathway involving a unique enzyme in an intestinal microorganism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108(16):6615-6620.
  41. Liju VB, Jeena K, Kuttan R. An evaluation of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antinociceptive activities of essential oil from Curcuma longa. L. Indian J Pharmacol. 2011;43(5):526-531.
  42. Yue GG, Chan BC, Hon PM, et al. Evaluation of in vitro anti-proliferative and immunomodulatory activities of compounds isolated from Curcuma longa. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010;48(8-9):2011-2020.
  43. Shoba G, Joy D, Joseph T, Majeed M, Rajendran R, Srinivas PS. Influence of piperine on the pharmacokinetics of curcumin in animals and human volunteers. Planta Med. 1998;64(4):353-356. doi: 10.1055/s-2006-957450.
  44. Cheng AL, Hsu CH, Lin JK, et al. Phase I clinical trial of curcumin, a chemopreventive agent, in patients with high-risk or pre-malignant lesions. Anticancer Res. 2001;21(4B):2895-2900.
  45. Sharma RA, Euden SA, Platton SL, et al. Phase I clinical trial of oral curcumin: biomarkers of systemic activity and compliance. Clin Cancer Res. 2004;10(20):6847-6854.
  46. Goindi S, Maheshwari M. Comparative bioavailability of curcumin, turmeric and Biocurcumax™ in traditional vehicles using non-everted rat intestinal sac model. J Funct Foods. 2010;2(1):60-65.
  47. Antony B, Benny M, Rao S. Enhancing the absorption of curcuminoids. Spice India. July 2005:23-26.
  48. Butchin R. Bioavailability of a novel, bioenhanced preparation of curcumin in dogs. Poster presented at: 2009 ACVIM Forum/Canadian Veterinary Medical Association Convention; June 3-6, 2009; Montréal, Québec, Canada.
  49. Benny M, Antony B. Bioavailability of Biocurcumax (BCM-95). Spice India. September 2006:11-15.
  50. Antony B, Merina B, Iyer VS, Judy N, Lennertz K, Joyal S. A pilot cross-over study to evaluate human oral bioavailability of BCM-95® CG (Biocurcumax™), a novel bioenhanced preparation of curcumin. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2008;70(4):445-449.
  51. Jäger R, Lowery RP, Calvanese AV, Joy JM, Purpura M, Wilson JM. Comparative absorption of curcumin formulations. Nutr J. 2014;13:11. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-13-11.
  52. Villaflores OB, Chen YJ, Chen CP, Yeh JM, Wu TY. Curcuminoids and resveratrol as anti-Alzheimer agents. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol. 2012;51(4):515-525.
  53. Shen LR, Parnell LD, Ordovas JM, Lai CQ. Curcumin and aging. Biofactors. 2013;39(1):133-140.
  54. Lantz RC, Chen GJ, Solyom AM, Jolad SD, Timmermann BN. The effect of turmeric extracts on inflammatory mediator production. Phytomedicine. 2005;12(6-7):445-452.
  55. Reagan-Shaw S, Nihal M, Ahmad N. Dose translation from animal to human studies revisited. FASEB J. 2008;22(3):659-661.
  56. Brunswick Labs. ORAC assay results BCM 95 Soft Gel Grade lot #SG/0607/B11. August 11, 2006.
  57. Brunswick Labs. ORAC assay results BCM 95 lot #CG/0607/B11. January 31, 2007.
  58. Kumar S, Sriman V, Shashank M, Alaparthi V, Choudhard Y. Anti-inflammatory activity of a herbal formulation (BCM-95) and Curcuma longa extract: a comparative dose response study. 2013. (Unpublished)
  59. Leray V, Freuchet B, Le Bloc’h J, Jeusette I, Torre C, Nguyen P. Effect of citrus polyphenol- and curcumin-supplemented diet on inflammatory state in obese cats. Br J Nutr. 2011;106(Suppl S1):S198-S201.
  60. Horohov DW, Sinatra ST, Chopra RK, Jankowitz S, Betancourt A, Bloomer RJ. The effect of exercise and nutritional supplementation on proinflammatory cytokine expression in young racehorses during training. J Equine Vet Sci. 2012;32(12):805-815.
  61. Shakibaei M, Buhrmann C, Kraehe P, Shayan P, Lueders C, Goel A. Curcumin chemosensitizes 5-fluorouracil resistant MMR-deficient human colon cancer cells in high density cultures. PLoS One. 2014;9(1):e85397. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0085397.
  62. Buhrmann C, Kraehe P, Lueders C, Shayan P, Goel A, Shakibaei M. Curcumin suppresses crosstalk between colon cancer stem cells and stromal fibroblasts in the tumor microenvironment: potential role of EMT. PLoS One. 2014;9(9):e107514. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0107514.
  63. Shakibaei M, Kraehe P, Popper B, Shayan P, Goel A, Buhrmann C. Curcumin potentiates antitumor activity of 5-fluorouracil in a 3D alginate tumor microenvironment of colorectal cancer. BMC Cancer. 2015;15:250. doi: 10.1186/s12885-015-1291-0.
  64. Toden S, Okugawa Y, Jascur T, et al. Curcumin mediates chemosensitization to 5-fluorouracil through miRNA-induced suppression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in chemoresistant colorectal cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2015;36(3):355-367.
  65. Toden S, Okugawa Y, Buhrmann C, et al. Novel evidence for curcumin and boswellic acid-induced chemoprevention through regulation of miR-34a and miR-27a in colorectal cancer. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2015;8(5):431-443.
  66. Siddappa G, Kulsum S, Ravindra DR. Chemoprevention and treatment efficacy of curcumin in combination with metformin in an in vivo oral carcinogenesis model. Poster presented at: 5th IFHNOS World Congress 2014; July 26-30, 2014; New York, New York.
  67. Sanmukhani J, Anovadiya A, Tripathi CB. Evaluation of antidepressant like activity of curcumin and its combination with fluoxetine and imipramine: an acute and chronic study. Acta Pol Pharm. 2011;68(5):769-775.
  68. Anovadiya AP, Sanmukhani JJ, Vadgama VK, Tripathi CB. Evaluation of antiepileptic and memory retention activity of curcumin per se and in combination with antiepileptic drugs. Asian J Pharm Clin Res. 2013;6(Suppl 2):145-148.
  69. Sudhakaran PR. Biocurcumax in carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury. Kariavattom, Kerala, India: University of Kerala; 2010.
  70. Sudhakaran PR. Biocurcumax in alcohol induced liver injury. Kariavattom, Kerala, India: University of Kerala;2010.
  71. Lopresti AL, Maes M, Meddens MJ, Maker GL, Arnoldussen E, Drummond PD. Curcumin and major depression: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial investigating the potential of peripheral biomarkers to predict treatment response and antidepressant mechanisms of change. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2015;25(1):38-50.
  72. Antony B, Kizhakedath R, Benny M, Kuruvilla BT. 316 Clinical evaluation of a herbal formulation, Rhulief™, in the management of knee osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2011;19(Suppl 1):S145-S146.
  73. Gardner Z, McGuffin M, eds. American Herbal Products Association’s Botanical Safety Handbook. 2nd ed. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press; 2013.
  74. Mills S, Bone K. The Essential Guide to Herbal Safety. St. Louis, Missouri: Elsevier; 2005.
  75. National Cancer Institute. Clinical development plan: Curcumin. J Cell Biochem. 1996;63(Suppl S26):72-85.
  76. Sharma RA, Ireson CR, Verschoyle RD, et al. Effects of dietary curcumin on glutathione S-transferase and malondialdehyde-DNA adducts in rat liver and colon mucosa: relationship with drug levels. Clin Cancer Res. 2001;7(5):1452-1458.
  77. Perkins S, Verschoyle RD, Hill K, et al. Chemopreventive efficacy and pharmacokinetics of curcumin in the min/+ mouse, a model of familial adenomatous polyposis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2002;11(6):535-540.
  78. Ganiger S, Malleshappa HN, Krishnappa H, Rajashekhar G, Ramakrishna Rao V, Sullivan F. A two generation reproductive toxicity study with curcumin, turmeric yellow, in Wistar rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2007;45(1):64-69.
  79. Strimpakos AS, Sharma RA. Curcumin: preventive and therapeutic properties in laboratory studies and clinical trials. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2008;10(3):511-545.
  80. Kim DC, Ku SK, Bae JS. Anticoagulant activities of curcumin and its derivative. BMB Rep. 2012;45(4):221-226.
  81. Volak LP, Ghirmai S, Cashman JR, Court MH. Curcuminoids inhibit multiple human cytochromes P450, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, and sulfotransferase enzymes, whereas piperine is a relatively selective CYP3A4 inhibitor. Drug Metab Dispos. 2008;36(8):1594-1605.
  82. Chen Y, Liu WH, Chen BL, et al. Plant polyphenol curcumin significantly affects CYP1A2 and CYP2A6 activity in healthy, male Chinese volunteers. Ann Pharmacother. 2010;44(6):1038-1045.
  83. Juan H, Terhaag B, Cong Z, et al. Unexpected effect of concomitantly administered curcumin on the pharmacokinetics of talinolol in healthy Chinese volunteers. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2007;63(7):663-668.
  84. Shriram Institute for Industrial Research. Acute Oral Toxicity Study in Mice. Report No. 00217109. November 7, 2011.
  85. Shriram Institute for Industrial Research. Acute Oral Toxicity Study in Rats. Report No. 00217109. November 7, 2011.
  86. Sudhakaran PR. Biocurcumax (BCM-95) subchronic toxicity in rats. Alwaye, Kerala, India: Arjuna Natural Extracts Ltd.; 2010.
  87. Shriram Institute for Industrial Research. 90 Days Repeated Dose Oral Toxicity Study in Rats. Report No. 00217110. November 7, 2011.
  88. Shriram Institute for Industrial Research. Mammalian Bone Marrow Chromosome Aberration Test. Report No. 00217109. November 7, 2011.
  89. Shriram Institute for Industrial Research. Ames Test (Bacterial Reverse Mutation Assay). Report No. 00217109. November 7, 2011.
  90. GRAS Notices: GRN No. 686. Curcumin from turmeric (Curcuma longa L.). US Food & Drug Administration website. Available at: Accessed November 13, 2017.