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* A solvent is a substance that dissolves or extracts a chemical entity, resulting in a solution.

† USP 32nd Revision-National Formulary 27th ed. (USP 32–NF 27) Method <467>. Rockville, MD: United States Pharmacopeial Convention; 2009.

‡ Arjuna internal report titled “Long Term Stability Data: Bio-Curcumin® (BCM-95CG®).”

§ Correspondence with EuroPharma reveals that the dogs in this veterinary study were not sacrificed, and the only invasive procedure was drawing blood to measure serum curcumin levels in an effort to determine the optimal type of curcumin absorption for use in dogs with inflammatory diseases and cancer.

** A conversion factor of 1.053 (density of dog blood) can be used to obtain the μg/mL value.

†† The ratios of ingredients in the mixture were not given in the paper.

‡‡ A gene that in certain circumstances can transform a cell into a tumor cell.

§§ This study was available only in abstract form representing a poster presentation.

*** National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke–Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Disorders Association diagnostic criteria.

††† Study was published as a meeting abstract representing a poster presentation. The full study has not yet been published.

‡‡‡ Studies conducted with curcumin products with added bioavailability enhancers or enhanced formulations are not included here.