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Scientific Name:
Matricaria chamomilla (syn. M. recutita, Chamomilla recutita)
Family Name:
Common Name:
German chamomile, blue chamomile
Evidence for Efficacy (Human Data)
Observational Studies/Case Reports
Aromatherapy massage with chamomile essential oil diluted in jojoba oil significantly increased the mean 24-h urinary norepinephrine change rate in dementia patients with insomnia, whereas administering a blend of lavender, chamomile, and valerian essential oils (2:2:1) resulted in the highest serum 5-hydroxytryptamine levels, compared to the individual oils. Lee 2023
Chamomile was the most common herbal medicine used by dialysis patients with chronic kidney disease in Yucatán, Mexico. Gracida-Osorno 2023
A novel nutraceutical formulation composed of L-tryptophan, probiotics, charcoal, chamomile, mint, and licorice (COLONIR®) achieved a significant reduction of gastrointestinal symptoms in subjects with irritable bowel syndrome. (N=1004) Fiorini 2023
In a cross-sectional study of herb-drug interactions conducted among cancer patients in Iran, chamomile was the most popular herbal medicine used. Bazrafshani 2023
In a retrospective and descriptive study conducted among older adults actively undergoing chemotherapy, chamomile was the only risk factor for dysgeusia. Allegra 2023
In a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study of the incidence and self-management methods of primary dysmenorrhea among female medical students, 14.1% of the respondents used herbal medicine such as cinnamon (55.7%), chamomile (40.7%), and ginger (33.3%), with the use associated with less likely severe pain and interference with daily activities, compared to those using medications. Zaman 2022
Effect of Matricaria chamomilla on stressed relatives of COVID-19 patients in andean communities of Peru. [Article in Spanish] [No abstract] Saldaña-Chafloque 2022
An online survey (N = 1704) determined 23.24% of the respondents to be users of phytotherapy with the purpose of prevention or treatment of COVID-19, chamomile identified among the top three most frequently used medicinal plants. Kladar 2022
In a prospective interventional study with 43 participants, the use of a compress prepared with chamomile (Chamomilla recutita) infusion resulted in complete regression of dry desquamation in 65.1% of head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. Menêses 2022
Analysis of complementary and alternative medicine use among cancer patients, as well as potential interactions with antineoplastic agents, found chamomile to be the most common herbal product used. (N=937) Escudero-Vilaplana 2022
A review of literature on the prevalence of self-medication among Mexican populations identified chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) as one of the primary plant-derived alternative medications used. Ortiz 2022
Olfactory stimulation with various types of aromatic oils, including that of chamomile, for 90 s significantly increased relative alpha power spectrums, indicative of relaxation and resting state of the brain, and decreased systolic blood pressure, which indicates stress reduction, in women (N = 23). Choi 2022
A cross-sectional, national, online survey in relation to the intake of complementary medicine products found chamomile to be one of the most popular herbs among Australian women during breastfeeding. Barnes 2021
A compound herbal formulation comprising ethanolic extracts of chamomile (Matricaria recutita) capitulum, oak (Quercus spp.) bark, sage (Salvia officinalis) leaf, arnica (Arnica spp.) herb, calamus (Acorus calamus) rhizome, peppermint (Mentha piperita) herb, and thyme (Thymus spp.) significantly improved therapeutic effectiveness in clinical cases of gingivitis, periodontitis, and diseases of oral mucosa of viral, bacterial, fungal, and protozoal etiology, and promoted tissue regeneration and relief of pain and swelling following dental surgery. Schönknecht 2021
A cross-sectional survey on the use of complementary/alternative medicine by patients with depression, conducted in Iran, found herbal medicine to be the most common modality, used by 97.35% of the respondents, chamomile being one of the most favored herbs, used by 46.9% of the patients (second only to borage, 77% reporting the use), with majority of the subjects claiming effectiveness as the main reason behind the use. Ashraf 2021
In a multicentre prospective study, an ointment containing 3% sucralfate and a chamomile extract, among other ingredients, induced complete remission in 39.4% of patients with hemorrhoidal disease following 13 days of treatment. Giua 2021
A case report describes successful treatment of COVID-19 by using chamomile-containing supplements and chamomile-based inhalation therapy five times a day for four days. El Sayed 2020
Administration of enemas containing decoctions of chamomile and calendula flowers (100 g each) and smoke-tree leaves (100 g) prevented surgical interventions in patients admitted to the surgical department with the diagnosis of intestinal obstruction (n = 54). Mufazalov 2020
Use of a homemade mouth rinse prepared from Matricaria chamomilla flower and flax (Linum usitatissimum) seed 3-4 times daily for 3 months decreased the severity of burning mouth syndrome in women (n = 40). Aitken-Saavedra 2020
A retrospective study found TaibUVID supplements containing Nigella sativa, chamomile, and natural honey improve lymphopenia in COVID-19 patients (n = 20), while the COVID-19 contacts (n = 20) either did not get infected or tested PCR-negative after taking the supplements. El Sayed 2020
A series of cases showed good results in the use of a topical rectal ointment containing calendula, chamomile, and witch hazel (hamamelis) extracts for the control of symptoms and reduction of edema associated with hemorrhoidal disease. Amaturo 2020
A survey of patients scheduled for elective surgery at an urban hospital/university clinic in Hungary revealed one-third (34.3%) of the patients using herbal remedies, chamomile being among the top three (along with garlic and lemongrass). [Article in Hungarian] Soós 2020
A study investigated the use of herbal supplements, including chamomile, by mothers to cope with common childhood health concerns. Gürol 2019
A study reports on the use of Matricaria chamomilla, among other herbal medicines, by patients with chronic allergies in Saudi Arabia. Koshak 2019
In a pilot randomized controlled trial, a chamomile syrup (5 mL twice daily) reduced prolactin levels in women with idiopathic hyperprolactinemia (N = 56), albeit less effectively than cabergoline (orally, twice weekly). Kabiri 2019
Chamomile was among the most frequently used herbal medicines by subjects with rheumatoid arthritis, according to a cross-sectional, case-control study conducted at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Rambod 2018
A study of two cases found a combination of cognitive therapy and chamomile tea to be an effective treatment for burning mouth syndrome. Milani 2018
Chamomile consumption a few hours earlier coincided with abundant milk production and high breast tension in a woman, suggesting a galactagogue effect. Silva 2018
In a cross-sectional survey of female college students in Saudi Arabia, chamomile was deemed one of the most preferred (by 54.2%) dietary supplements in the "when needed" category. Alfawaz 2017
Chamomile was recommended by a large proportion (64%) of German dentists, according to the cross-sectional survey investigating their use of complementary and alternative medical modalities (CAM); the majority of CAM-endorsing dentists were women. Baatsch 2017
Chamomile was identified as the third most common complementary/alternative therapy, preceded only by use of multivitamins and folic acid, in a survey of patients with coagulation disorders in Southern Iran. Bordbar 2017
A case of gradual symptomatic improvement in a 2-year-old boy with asthma and gastroesophageal reflux disease, not responsive to therapy, upon taking an anthroposophic medication containing Matricaria recutita, Atropa belladonna, bismuth, and antimonite is presented. von Schoen-Angerer 2016
Chamomile consumption was associated with reduced risk of mortality in a sample of older women (hazard ratio, 0.67; 95% CI 0.49-0.92), but not men, of Mexican origin. Howrey 2015
Chamomile tea consumption (2-6 times/week) was inversely associated with the risk of benign (OR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.12-0.5) or malignant (OR, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.10-0.89) thyroid diseases. Duration of consumption was also inversely associated with the diseases. Riza 2015
Monotherapy with a combination of myrrh, chamomile, and coffee charcoal resulted in a better outcome for irritable bowel syndrome patients, compared with its use as an add-on therapy and other therapies. Albrecht 2015
Chamomile was among the most commonly used herbs (along with almond oil and fennel) by pregnant women in Italy. Facchinetti 2012
A case of methotrexate MTX-induced oral mucositis in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis was successfully treated with wild chamomile mouthwashes. Mazokopakis 2005
Chamomile oil increased the latency for visualized images, and shifted mood ratings and frequency judgements in a more positive direction in 22 subjects Roberts 1992
Effect of chamomile cream and almond ointment on acute radiation skin reaction. Maiche 1991
Kamillosan ointment is superior to hydrocortisone for contact dermatitis [Article in German] Nissen 1988
Double-blind study with weeping wound area after dermabrasion of tattoos on 14 patients found efficacy of chamomile extract [Article in German] Glowania 1987
Clinical experiences in the pharmacological treatment of vaginitis with a camomile-extract vaginal douche [Article in Italian] Benetti 1985
History of Record
June 2001
March 2023