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Scientific Name:
Matricaria chamomilla (syn. M. recutita, Chamomilla recutita)
Family Name:
Common Name:
German chamomile, blue chamomile
Other Information
Cultivation, Conservation & Ecology
Irradiation of chamomile seeds prior to sowing induced DNA damage still apparent at the flowering stage, with non-linear changes in the content of antioxidants such as phenols and flavonoids corresponding to genomic damage and reaching maximum at 5-10 Gy. Sokolova 2023
Combined use of gamma-irradiation and a chemical mutagen, followed by an artificial selection process, lead researchers to the selection of two promising mutant lines of Matricaria chamomilla with a higher oil content and chamazulene percentage or an increased number of flowers per plant. Ghareeb 2022
A study provides a review of sustainable approaches to increase the yield and active constituents content of medicinal plants by way of biostimulants, including evidence for the application of amino acids to chamomile crop. Shahrajabian 2022
A study distinguished 6 stages of M. chamomilla floral development, including 4 preliminary, the anthesis stage characterized by anther dehiscence and ray and disc florets' style flushing, while also reporting on the pollen dispersal distance, and optimal harvest time for essential oil yield. Yadav 2022
A study investigated the effect of phosphorus and biostimulant application on the agro-morphological traits, essential oil yield, and chemical constituents of German chamomile cultivated in the western Himalayan region. Rathore 2022
A review discusses the current issues surrounding cultivation and processing of German chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla), such as lack of varieties suitable for machine harvesting and breeding challenges. Chauhan 2021
A study investigated the variations between 6 different chamomile genotypes (M. chamomilla; Isfahan, Shiraz, Kazeron, Goral, Sharokashari, and Presso) in callogenesis, organogenesis, and cell suspension culture weight during in-vitro production in different media compositions. Ahmad 2021
Infestation by field dodder (Cuscuta campestris), a parasitic plant, reduced dry weight (by 63%) and essential oil yield (by 0.5%) of chamomile (Maticaria recutita) plants, also changing the composition of the oil. Saric-Krsmanovic 2020
A study characterized the microbial communities of the leaves of Matricaria chamomilla and Calendula officinalis. Köberl 2019
A study investigated the potential of gamma-irradiation of the seeds to increase essential oil yield and qualiy, in the 'Vallary' variety of chamomile (Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert). Lal 2019
Abnormal manganese exposure adversely affected the growth and phenolics content of Matricaria chamomilla plants grown in soil or hydroponically. Kovácik 2018
Treatment with gaseous ozone showed promising results for the microbial decontamination of dried chamomile. Kazi 2018
A study found that electron beam treatment was more effective than gamma irradiation for microbial decontamination of chamomile (Chamomile recutta L.) powder. Al-Bachir 2017
A study investigated the effects of heat stress and salicylic acid application on the quality and chemical profile of the essential oil from three cultivars (Bushehr, Bona, Bodegold) of Matricaria chamomilla. Ghasemi 2016
Long-term, high metal exposure (cadmium, lead, copper, nickel, and zinc) induced genetic changes in Matricaria recutita plants. Ackova 2016
Chromium was found to accumulate mainly in the roots of chamomile plants, and only negligibly in the shoots. Total root chromium was higher in the tetraploid plants. Kováčik 2015
Short-term UV-B light irradiation increased the levels of total soluble phenols and flavonols, and decreased those of coumarins in Matricaria chamomilla leaves. Petruľová 2014
Exogenous calcium suppresses chromium (VI) uptake and toxicity in chamomile plants but does not improve the growth of chamomile seedlings. Kováčik 2014
Application of certain nitric oxide modulators (SNP and PTIO) increased cadmium uptake by hydroponically cultured Matricaria chamomilla plants, and in seedlings cultured in deionized water. Kováčik 2014
Application of bacterial inoculants Bacillus subtilis Co1-6 and Paenibacillus polymyxa Mc5Re-14 was associated with higher levels of apigenin-7-O-glucoside in organically grown chamomile. Schmidt 2014
Manganese excess depressed the growth (but not germination) of Matricaria chamomilla seedlings, with the effect thwarted by application of an exogenous nitric oxide donor (sodium nitroprusside). Kováčik 2014
The changes in levels of phenolic compounds in Matricaria chamomilla plants in response to variations in nitrogen nutrition were investigated. Kováčik 2014
The microbiome of Matricaria chamomilla plants cultivated on an organically managed farm in the Egyptian desert was analyzed. Köberl 2013
The mechanisms of chromium Cr(III) toxicity to chamomile were elucidated. Kováčik 2013
Addition of CaCl2 to growth media decreased the uptake and toxicity of cadmium, while boosting the growth of hydroponically cultivated Matricaria chamomilla. Farzadfar 2013
Salinity affected the growth and herniarin content of Matricaria chamomilla plants more negatively than nitrogen (N) deficiency, while combination of nitrogen deficiency and copper treatment increased the levels of total soluble phenols and phenolic acids. Kováčik 2012
Nitrogen deficiency decreased accumulation of the heavy metals cadmium and nickel, while increasing the content of chlorogenic and caffeic acids, in Matricaria chamomilla plants. Kovácik 2011
A field experiment conducted on chamomile showed that drought stress decreased plant height, flower yield, shoot weight & apigenin content but it had no significant effect on oil content or oil composition & chamomile could be proposed as a moderate drought resistant medicinal plant. Baghalian 2011
A study on chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) during two growth stages by the exogenous application of hexaconazole (HEX)showed that HEX-induced tolerance to water deficit stress in chamomile was related to the changes in growth variables, antioxidants and the apigenin-7-glucoside content. Hojati 2011
A study on the essential oil content & composition of chamomile in different weather conditions in field experiments conducted on 28 wild populations & 4 cultivars showed that during moderately warm & relatively wet years, contents of essential oil & alpha-bisabolol were the highest. Gosztola 2010
A study on the role of ploidy in cadmium & nickel uptake by chamomile plants showed that diploid plants accumulated higher amount of Cd in shoots & roots compared to tetraploids while Ni accumulation was ploidy-independent. Cd accumulation may be mediated by accumulation of phenols. Kovácik 2010
A study was carried out to determine whether host plants influence parasitism & parasitoid species composition in Lygus rugulipennis. Nymphs were collected in two ecoregions in chamomile, red clover & alfalfa. Parasitism levels & parasitoid species did not differ in nymphs in different species. Gariepy 2008
An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal herbs from Kopaonik mountain in Central Serbia recorded 83 species from 41 families and 96 preparations including Matricaria chamomilla. Jarić 2007
The role of Myzus persicae avector of PPV-M, and its secondary hosts in plum pox virus propagation was studied and showed that ten species including Matricaria chamomilla L became infected. This study reveals the ability of M. persicae to transmit PPV-M from herbaceous hosts to peach trees. Manachini 2007
[Response of chamomile plants (Matricaria recutita L.) to cadmium treatment.] Pavlovic 2006
A study on the allelopathic effects of various weed extracts on seed germination showed that chickpea seed germination was inhibited by extracts of Matricaria chamomilla, Solanum nigrum, and Chenopodium album (22%, 10%, and 20%, respectively) at the end of 21 day incubation period. Kadioglu 2005
43 microfungi were observed on 30 species of Compositae apecies occurring in North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW). Some microfungi were discovered on new hosts in NRW including Ascochyta spec.Libert on Matricaria recutita. Ale-Agha 2002
A study on the production of essential oils in genetically transformed chamomile hairy root cultures showed that the composition of essential oil of hairy root cultures on different media was similar but differing in proportion & the main component was trans-beta-farnesene. Máday 1999
[Tissue culture of Matricaria chamomilla L. I. Communication: isolations and maintainance of the tissue culture. Preliminary phytochemical investigations(author's transl)]. [Article in German] Reichling 1976
Influence of ecological factors on the essential oils and flavonoids of two camomile cultivars. 2.: Effect of light and temperature [Article in German] Franz 1975
Effects of light upon quantity and quality of Matricaria chamomilla L. oil. 2. Preliminary study of supplementary colored light effects under controlled conditions. Saleh 1972
[First results on chemical weed control in chamomilla (Matricaria chamomilla L)].[Article in German] Horn 1969
[Change in the content of essential oil and chamazulene in German chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) during vegetative period]. [Article in Russian] Kiseleva EIa 1969
History of Record
June 2001
March 2023