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Scientific Name:
Matricaria chamomilla (syn. M. recutita, Chamomilla recutita)
Family Name:
Common Name:
German chamomile, blue chamomile
Evidence of Activity
Animal Studies
Combined administration of chamomile (15 mg/kg) and saffron (5 mg/kg) exerted anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects, with accompanying increases in dopamine and norepinephrine levels, in diabetic rats. Ahmad 2022
Matricaria chamomilla essential oil as well as its mixture with honey exhibited antioxidant, antimicrobial/antifungal, and antidiabetic activities in vitro, and potent anti-inflammatory effects in carrageenan-induced paw edema model in vivo. Qasem 2022
A study investigated the potential activity of Urtica dioica, Matricaria chamomilla, and Murraya koenigii in rotenon-induced Drosophila melanogaster model of neurodegenerative disease. Shabir 2022
A Matricaria chamomilla flower extract increased bone strength and thickness, restoring cortical and trabecular architecture, while reducing serum calcium, phosphate ion, creatinine, and alkaline phosphatase levels, in a rat model of steroid-induced osteoporosis. Raja 2022
Topical treatment with (-)-α-bisabolol, a sesquiterpene alcohol mainly derived from Matricaria chamomilla, reduced the symptoms of atopic dermatitis and the associated interleukin-4 release accompanied by mast cell inhibition in a mouse model. Li 2022
A constituent of chamomile, α-Bisabolol, administered orally for 7 days prior to and 3 days after the challenge, alleviated acute kidney injury induced by cisplatin in a mouse model. Zaaba 2022
Ad libitum consumption of chamomile tea in substitution of water for 21 days alleviated oxidative stress in the parotid salivary glands of diabetic rats, with accompanying hypoglycemic effects. Perestrelo 2022
Vizoovet®, an all-natural eye drop containing propolis, aloe vera, and chamomile, as an adjunctive treatment, reduced corneal healing time following diamond burr debridement, in dogs with chronic corneal epithelial defects. Dees 2021
Administration of a chamomile extract ameliorated kidney dysfunction, decreasing elevated levels of serum urea, testosterone, and lipid peroxide product, and p53 expression in the kidney tubules and glomeruli, in a rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome. Alahmadi 2021
An ethanol extract of chamomile (M. chamomilla) ameliorated muscle loss induced by dexamethasone in mice and induced mitochondrial biogenesis, with potential implications for muscle wasting/atrophy disorders, including sarcopenia and cachexia. Park 2021
Nerolidol, a sesquiterpene constituent of German chamomile [Matricaria chamomilla], improved inflammation, histological characteristics, and ameliorated weight reduction in rats with acetic acid-induced colitis, a model of inflammatory bowel diseases. Bastaki 2021
Matricaria chamomilla extract alone and especially in combination with Punica granatum extract showed wound healing activity in a rat excision wound model. Niknam 2021
Co-administration of Arnebia euchroma and Matricaria chamomilla, mainly comprising a traditional formula called Marham-Mafasel, reduced inflammation and swelling and significantly decreased IL-1β levels in subcutaneous Freund's complete adjuvant-induced rat model of rheumatoid arthritis. Majidi 2021
A mixture of rosemary and chamomile oils and honey induced complete healing skin wounds in donkeys. Anis 2021
Apigenin, a constituent of chamomile tea, ameliorated hypoxia/ischemia-induced brain injury, decreasing the infarct volume, cerebral edema, inflammatory response, and apoptosis, in experimental models in vivo. Fu 2021
A hydroethanolic Matricaria chamomilla flowers extract (200 mg/kg body weight daily for 12 weeks) in combination with endurance training ameliorated necrosis of hippocampal neurons and associated cognitive impairment in diabetic rats. Heidarianpour 2021
A study revealed a possible mechanism of the ameliorating effect of apigenin on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity/liver failure, in mice, which may involve aberrant increases in the serum levels of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT1A) and activation of the Nrf2 pathway. Zhang 2020
Administration of a chamomile (M. recutita) decoction extract reversed all biomolecular and neurobehavioral changes, including depression- and anxiety-like behavior, induced by a high-fat diet in a rat model of obesity. Jabri 2020
A polysaccharide purified from chamomile tea showed antinociceptive and sedative, or anxiolytic-like, effects in an animal model. Chaves 2020
Ocular application of a preparation containing chamomile, aloe vera, and propolis (Vizoovet; twice daily in addition to tacrolimus 0.03%) relieved clinical signs of keratoconjunctivitis sicca (dry eye) in dogs. Dees 2020
Chamomile extract (150 mg/kg body weight, orally, 5 days/week) suppressed colon carcinogenesis induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine in a mouse model of colorectal cancer. El Joumaa 2020
A study identified probable protein targets involved in the effect of a total flavonoid extract of chamomile on asthma in a rat model. Li 2020
A chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) flower extract in combination with metformin improved serum levels of thyroid hormones (TSH, T3, and T4) and eliminated most pathological changes in the thyroid gland associated with polycystic ovary syndrome, in a rat model. Alahmadi 2020
Matricaria chamomilla aqueous extract (150 mg/kg b.w., orally, for 12 weeks) attenuated markers of liver injury and inflammation in mice with chemically induced colorectal cancer. Shebbo 2020
A novel apigenin derivative, 6"-O-succinylapigenin, identified in chamomile, decreased infarct size and neurological deficits in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion. Zhang 2019
A preparation of Boswellia serrata resin, Aloe vera polysaccharides, and Matricaria chamomilla and Melissa officinalis polyphenols increased the abdominal pain threshold, compared to dexomethasone, and promoted the healing of the lesions, in a rat model of colitis. Parisio 2019
Nanoemulgel formulations of chamomile oil accelerated skin healing and abolished spongiosis in a rat model of atopic dermatitis. El-Salamouni 2019
Administration of (-)-a-bisabolol, a characteristic component of Matricaria chamomilla essential oil, reduced sepsis-induced inflammation and mortality in a mouse model. Cavalcante 2019
Chrysosplenetin, a compound isolated from chamomile (Chamomilla recutita), prevents estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss in mice, and promoted osteoblastogenesis of human bone marrow-derived stromal cells in vitro. Hong 2019
A hydroethanolic extract of Matricaria chamomilla (200-500 mg/kg) ameliorated reproductive toxicity of formaldehyde in male rats. Afrigan 2019
Oral administration of luteolin (100-200 mg/kg), a flavonoid found in chamomile blossoms, reduced the renal toxicity of bisphenol A in rats. Alekhya Sita 2019
Methanolic extract of chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) showed potent anthelmintic activity against intestinal nematodes (Heligmosomoides polygyrus) and alleviated inflammation in the small bowel, in mice. Hajaji 2019
A study demonstrated multiple effects of a combination of extracts from Matricaria recutita, Foeniculum vulgare, and Gentiana lutea on the gastrointestinal tract motility, including reducing emetogenic stimuli induced by cisplatin in rats. Silveira 2019
No significant effects of aromatherapy with chamomile (Matricaria recutita) on the heart rate in horses were found in a study. Baldwin 2018
A hydroalcoholic extract of chamomile (400-1500 mg/kg/day, orally, for 2 weeks) mitigated bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, in rats. Hemmati 2018
Extracts of Chamomilla recutita showed potential ovicidal and larvicidal activities against Haemonchus contortus. Váradyová 2018
An ethanolic extract of Matricaria chamomilla (200-500 mg/kg) decreased formaldehyde-induced hippocampal cell death and memory impairment in rats. Sayyar 2018
A hydroalcoholic extract of Matricaria chamomilla, administered intraperitoneally for 7 days, reversed scopolamine-induced memory impairment in rats. Ionita 2018
A chamomile flowers extract (200 mg/kg/day) administered for 14 weeks in drinking water increased serum insulin levels in streptozotocin/nicotinamide-induced rat model of diabetes, with more significant effects observed in combination with physical activity. Abdolmaleki 2018
Pretreatment with chamomile (Chamomilla recutita) essential oils for two weeks slightly attenuated the increase in alanine aminotransferase and partially restored glutathione levels and superoxide dismutase activity in a rat model of acetaminophen-induced liver damage. Ebada 2018
A hydroalcoholic extract of Matricaria chamomilla ameliorated torsion/detorsion-induced testicular damage in rats, restoring testosterone, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase levels and decreasing lipid peroxidation. Soltani 2018
Luteolin, a major flavone in chamomile, showed antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects in several mouse models. Fan 2018
Matricaria chamomilla aqueous extract (7% in liquid petrolatum base, for two weeks) improved atopic dermatitis-like lesions in a murine model. [Article in Spanish] Ortiz-Bautista 2017
Bisabolol, a major constituent of chamomile (German chamomile) essential oil, exhibited anxiolytic-like effects in mouse models, with the involvement of the GABA(A) receptors. Tabari 2017
A decoction extract of chamomile (Matricaria recutita; 100 mg/kg, orally) ameliorated the effects of a high-fat diet on the body, kidney and liver weights, kidney and liver lipotoxicity and functional disturbances, in rats. Jabri 2017
Chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) decoction ameliorated histologic and biochemical changes induced by ethanol administration on the gastric mucosa of rats. Jabri 2017
Chamomile and oregano extracts (150-300 mg/kg) showed synergistic antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, and renoprotective effects in rats with alloxan-induced diabetes indicating that the combination may form a new class of drugs to treat diabetic complications. Prasanna 2016
Chamomile extract potentially accelerated the healing of oral ulcers, by reducing inflammation (TNF-α expression) and epithelial cell apoptosis, in diabetic rats. Oliveira 2016
A chamomile decoction extract (25-100 mg/kg for 10 days) reversed oxidative stress induced in the erythrocytes by alcohol administration, and attenuated alcohol-induced changes in white blood cells and platelet counts, in wistar rats. Jabri 2016
A dry extract of Matricaria recutita prevented alveolar bone resorption and inflammation, without affecting organs or body weights, in Wistar rats. Guimarães 2016
Chamomile, as well as its combination with anthocyanoside, significantly reduced bleomycin-induced malondialdehyde formation in the lungs of rats possibly as a result of phenolic combinations. Javadi 2015
A diet with 0.035% luteolin (present in chamomile) protected against cardiac fibrosis and hypertrophy, as well as a hyperoxidative state, induced by angiotensin II infusion, in rats. Nakayama 2015
A crude aqueous-methanolic extract of Matricaria chamomilla (150-300 mg/kg) showed marked antidiarrhoeal and antisecretory effects against castor oil-induced diarrhoea and intestinal fluid accumulation, in mice, similar to the effects of cromakalim and loperamide. Mehmood 2015
A Matricaria recutita decoction extract (CDE) ameliorated ethanol-induced liver injury in rats. The chemical composition and antioxidant properties were also determined. The data suggests that CDE exerted a potential hepatoprotective effect against EtOH-induced oxidative stress. Sebai 2015
An aqueous extract of chamomile (50 mg/kg/day for 7 days) attenuated paraquat-induced oxidative stress in the livers of rats. In conclusion, chamomile is an antioxidant and may help protect against oxidative liver injury in PQ poisoning. Tavakol 2015
Matricaria recutita was found to afford high level of protection (~95%) against indomethacine-induced gastric ulcer, in rats. Gohar 2014
Chamomile tea administration for 1-2 months reduced fasting and post prandial blood sugar and HbA1C levels, the latter effect comparable with glibenclamide, in rats with alloxan-induced diabetes. The chamomile tea had a glucose lowering effect in the diabetic rats. Khan 2014
A hydroalcholic extract of Matricaria chamomilla (50 mg/kg/day for 7 days) ameliorated paraquat-induced oxidative lung injury in rats. Researchers concluded that chamomile as natural antioxidant may be considered beneficial for the protection oxidative lung injury in PQ poisoning. Ranjbar 2014
A Matricaria recutita decoction extract ameliorated castor oil-induced diarrhea, intestinal fluid accumulation, oxidative stress and gastric and intestinal mucosa H2O2 and free iron levels, in rats. Sebai 2014
Apigenin (30-60 mg/kgbw/day), one of the characteristic constituents of chamomile, ameliorated atrophic gastritis and experimentally induced gastric cancer, and decreased Helicobacter pylori colonization and associated histological changes, in Mongolian gerbils. Kuo 2014
Essential oil from dried flower heads of Matricaria recutita (rich in bisabolol oxides; 25-100 mg/kg p.o.) showed antihyperalgesic and antiedematous effects in several rat models. Tomić 2014
An ethanolic extract of Matricaria recutita flowers (200 mg/kg/d for 6 weeks) reduced insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, plasma triacylglycerol, non-esterified fatty acids, and LDL/VLDL cholesterol, in insulin-resistant, high-fat diet-fed rats. Weidner 2013
Topical chamomile treatment induced anti-inflammatory activity, reducing the levels of IL-1β and TNF-α in the buccal mucosa, in a model of 5-fluorouracil-induced oral mucositis in hamsters. Curra 2013
Matricaria recutita (300 mg/kg, p.o.) decreased oxidative stress, inflammation and inhibited small bowel transit, while its 50:50 mixture with Aloe vera (150-300 mg/kg) additionally delayed gastric emptying, in a rat model of irritable bowel syndrome. Asadi-Shahmirzadi 2012
Chamomile (50 mg/kg, i.p., daily) attenuated cisplatin nephrotoxicity in rats and significantly increased body weight, normalized kidney function, improved apoptotic markers, reduced oxidative stress markers and corrected hypo-calcemia that resulted from cisplatin nephrotoxicity. Salama 2012
Essential oil of Matricaria chamomilla was highly effective against anisakiasis, in humans associated with consumption of raw/undercooked fish or squid, in a rat model. In conclusion, chamomile EO is a good candidate for further investigation as a biocidal agent against Anisakis type I. Romero Mdel 2012
Chamomile essential oil showed stimulant-like effects on the central nervous system of mice. Umezu 2012
Hydrodistilled Matricaria recutita essential oil (50-100 mg/kg) increased the numbers of spontaneous activities and exhibited anxiogenic effects in mice, similarly to caffeine. The exact mechanism of action underlying this stimulant-like effect should be clarified with further detailed studies. Can 2012
Evaluation of luminescent and fluorescent emissions of several essential oils, in order to detect them in living organisms by exploiting their optical properties, showed that fluorescent signals were observed for three hours on the skin of mice treated with wild chamomile oil. Boschi 2011
(-)-α-Bisabolol (25-200 mg/kg, p.o.), a major constituent of chamomile, reduced paw edema and pain induced by acetic acid, formalin and carrageenan via peripheral effects, in rodents. This study demonstrated the peripheral anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of (-)-α-bisabolol. Rocha 2011
A methanolic extract of Matricaria recutita (100-300 mg/kg, p.o.) decreased oxidative stress, increased levels of antioxidant enzymes, and potently attenuated histological brain damage, in rats administered aluminium fluoride. Ranpariya 2011
A study on the gastroprotective effect of (-)-alpha-bisabolol on acute gastric mucosal lesions in mice showed that gastroprotective effect of(-)-alpha-bisabolol may be associated with an increase of gastric sulfydryl groups availability leading to a reduction of gastric oxidative injury. Moura Rocha 2010
The methanolic extract of Matricaria recutita showed potent neuroprotective activity against global cerebral ischemia / reperfusion injury-induced oxidative stress in rats by decreasing lipid peroxidation & increasing SOD, catalase, GSH & total thiol in extract treated groups. Chandrashekhar 2010
A study on chamomile hydroalcoholic extract (MCE) on ethanol induced gastric mucosal injury in rats showed that MCE has protective effect against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions & this effect depends upon the reduction in lipid peroxidation & augmentation in antioxidant activity. Cemek 2010
The effect of hydro-methanolic percolated extract of Matricaria recutita on seizure induced by picrotoxin was studied in male mice which showed that the latency of the beginning time of seizure was increased in groups pretreated with the extract. There was also a delay in the time of death. Heidari 2009
The effects of Matricaria recutita & alpha-bisabolol, a component from chamomile species, were investigated against gastric damage induced by absolute ethanol in rats. It has been shown that alpha-bisabolol reduces the gastric damage induced by ethanol, by the activation of KATP+ channels. Bezerra 2009
Ethanolic extract of the aerial part of Matricaria chamomilla exhibited significant antihyperglycemic effect and protected beta-cells in STZ-diabetic rats, in a dose-dependent manner, and diminished the hyperglycemia-related oxidative stress. Cemek 2008
Administration of chamomile hot water extract in streptozotocin-induced rat diabetes model for 21 days caused suppression of blood glucose levels, increase in liver glycogen levels and inhibition against aldose reductase; hence could prevent the progress of hyper-glycemia & diabetic complications. Kato 2008
The effects of the extracts of mixtures of Matricaria recutita, Betula pubescens, Helichrysum arenarium, hawthorn, Fragaria vesca, Zea mays, and Equisetum arvense were studied on excretion of urine & electrolytes and changes in the PGE2 & kallikrein-kinins in rat plasma [Article in Czech]. Masteiková 2007
A study on the wound healing activity of aqueous extract of M. recutita (chamomile)extract in rats revealed increased rate of wound contraction and increased wound-breaking strength & hydroxyproline content. Nayak 2007
A study on the antipruritic effects of the diets containing German chamomile on the compound 48/80-induced scratching in ddY mice showed that the inhibitory effects on the itch-scratch responses were comparable to oxatomide (10 mg/kg, p.o.), an anti-allergic agent. Kobayashi 2003
Administration of hetero-polysaccharides of Matricaria chamomilla is found to normalize the immune response upon air cooling & enhance this process upon immersion cooling. The immuno-modulating effects are due to their action on macrocytes, immuno-regulation cells & other effector cells. Uteshev 1999
In contrast to diazepam, chrysin and apigenin do not cause reduction of memory Salgueiro 1997
Tabular flowers of Matricaria matricarioides, Calendula, Carthamus, Cosmos bipinnatus, Chrysanthemum morifolium, Helianthus annuus have helianol as the dominant component (29-86%) in the triterpene alcohol fractions. All inhibited TPA induced inflammation Akihisa 1996
Inhaling chamomile oil vapour decreased restriction stress-induced increases of plasma ACTH level in ovariectomized rat and this is blocked by flumazenile Yamada 1996
Bisabolol (from camomile oil) orally at 0.8-80 mg/kg to rats provided protection against gastric toxicity of acetylsalicylic acid (200 mg/kg) Torrado 1995
Heteropolysaccharides from camomile flower stimulated immune response in rats [Article in Russian] Laskova 1992
Anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced paw edema test: Withania somnifera > Apium graveolens > Achillea santolina > Matricaria chamomilla > Myrtus communis Al-Hindawi 1989
5 h after topical application of labelled levomenol half was in tissue and organs unmetabolized[Article in German] Hahn 1987
The role of flavonoids in the antiinflammatory activity of Chamomilla recutita. Della Loggia 1986
Evaluation of antiinflammatory activity of a chamomile extract topical application. Tubaro 1984
Anti-inflammatory effect, to injection of carageenan and prostaglandin E1, found with Matricaria chamomilla, Hypericum perforatum, Calendula officinalis and Plantago lanceolata [Article in Bulgarian] Shipochliev 1981
The relaxing effects on CNS of mice by Crataegus, Valeriana, Passiflora, Matricaria, Piscidia, Hyoscyamus and Atropa [Article in Italian] Della Loggia 1981
Choleretic action of Matricaria officinalis [Article in Russian] Pasechnik 1966
History of Record
June 2001
March 2023