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Scientific Name:
Matricaria chamomilla (syn. M. recutita, Chamomilla recutita)
Family Name:
Common Name:
German chamomile, blue chamomile
Safety Data
Adverse Effects & Toxicity
An entry in LiverTox suggests there being no records of serum enzyme elevations or clinically apparent liver injury causally linked to chamomile (Matricaria recutita) extracts, oils, and teas. [No authors listed] 2022
Contact urticaria caused by chamomile in a wet wipe. [No abstract] Navarro-Triviño 2022
A review of clinical cases identified chamomile among a list of allergens implicated in severe anaphylaxis in pregnancy. Simionescu 2021
A study evaluating the antibacterial effects of 10 commercial essential oils, including that of German chamomile, on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria found no cytotoxic effects of the chamomile essential oil on keratinocytes and epithelial cells in vitro. Ribeiro 2020
A case of anaphylactic reaction to chamomile tea in a patient with mugwort pollinosis. [No abstract] Nakagawa 2019
A Drugs and Lactation Database entry on chamomile (both German chamomile, Matricaria recutita, and Roman chamomile, Chamaemelum nobile) states that no data exist on the safety of chamomile in nursing mothers or infants, while highlighting known cases of allergic sensitization. [No authors listed] 2019
An expert review alleges that chamomile does not present any hepatotoxicity. [No authors listed] 2017
A study identified chamomile extracts among the top potential allergens in facial wet wipes obtained from large retail stores. Aschenbeck 2017
Constituents with dermal sensitization potential in German chamomile were identified as the polyacetylene tonghaosu (aged more reactive than freshly isolated one) and trans- and cis-glucomethoxycinnamic acids. Avonto 2017
Compositae plants, like chamomile, may induce systemic reactions through humoral and cell-mediated mechanisms. It is difficult to disentangle the contribution of these reactions to both local and systemic symptoms. Further research is suggested to assess prevalence and to clarify the pathogenesis. Paulsen 2016
High concentrations of a key chamomile compound, α-bisabolol, showed potential cardiotoxic effects in a mouse embryonic stem cell and ‎chick embryonic micromass culture, suggesting that only low amounts of this compound should be ingested in pregnancy. Mohammed 2016
Regular chamomile consumption throughout pregnancy was associated with a higher risk of pre-term delivery, lower birth weight, and lower length of the newborn, in a sample of Italian pregnant women in the South of Italy. Trabace 2015
Salmonella was undetectable on chamomile tea stored for 45 days at 35°C and high relative humidity. In all other conditions tested, salmonella survived both the storage and brewing. All brewed teas tested supported the growth of Salmonella. Keller 2015
Airborne allergic contact dermatitis caused by chamomile tea. [No abstract] Anzai 2015
Yeasts, molds and pathogenic bacteria on Matricaria chamomilla obtained in Romania were present but within the limits set by the European Pharmacopoeia for plant products to which hot water is added before use, emphasizing the importance of quality control in all stages of production. Oprea 2015
Occupational allergic rhinoconjunctivitis induced by Matricaria chamomilla with tolerance of chamomile tea. [No abstract] Benito 2014
Dried Matricaria chamomilla was the most contaminated with fungi amongst the tested herbs including Sage (Salvia officinalis L.)and Melissa (Mellisa officinalis L.). All herbs had mold below 1*10(6) CFU/g, in accordance with recommendations of the European Herbal Infusions Association. Żukiewicz-Sobczak 2013
Comment on Comparison of antibacterial effects of oral rinses chlorhexidine and herbal mouth wash in patients admitted to intensive care unit. [Bratisl Lek Listy. 2012] Stanko 2013
Study results emphasize the importance to patch test with extracts of native or locally grown plants due to geographical variation and potential unknown allergens contained in short ether preparations plus variability in patient's exposure and cross-reaction patterns. Paulsen 2012
Selected patients with known or suspected Compositae contact allergy when patch tested with 1% herniarin showed one positive and three doubtful positive reactions. This study suggests that herniarin (7-methoxycoumarin), is one of the possible coumarin allergens in chamomile. Paulsen 2010
Review of side-effects, precautions & interactions with other medicines of plants, including chamomile, frequently self-medicated with in South America in which 15 adverse-reactions were reported by pharmacists through a pharmaceutical vigilance program. Consolini 2010
A 38-year-old Caucasian man developed an episode of severe anaphylaxis with generalized urticaria, angioedema and severe dyspnoea one hour after consuming chamomile tea. Skin prick test and labial provocation test with chamomile showed a strong positive reaction. Andres 2009
Flower workers have cross-sensitization to pollen of several Compositae (e.g., Matricaria, chrysanthemum, solidago) and Amaryllidaceae (Alstroemeria and Narcissus). Mugwort can be used as a screening test de Jong 1998
Allergic and systemic contact dermatitis from Matricaria chamomilla tea. Rodriguez-Serna 1998
Positive patch test with Kamillosan in a patient with hypersensitivity to camomile. Rudzki 1998
Contact dermatitis from chamomile tea. Pereira 1997
Houseflies treated topically with LD50 level of 76 ug/fly had some alterations in amino acid content Shoukry 1997
Compositae mixture of ether extracts of arnica, German chamomile, feverfew, tansy, and yarrow elicit allergic response in 118 of 3851 people (3.1%) Hausen 1996
Of 84 patients allergic to Artemisia, 4 were also allergic to chamomile Garcia Ortiz 1996
Contact sensitivity to nettles and camomile in "alternative" remedies. Bossuyt 1994
Some individuals are allergic to chamomile Paulsen 1993
Allergic contact dermatitis of the nipple from Roman chamomile ointment. McGeorge 1991
Inhalation of steam from camomile tea is a home remedy for upper respiratory inflammation two children burned from this is a reminder that meticulous care should be observed [Article in Danish] Balslev 1990
An 8-year-old boy who is allergic to a variety of pollens had severe anaphylactic reaction after drinking chamomile-tea infusion. Matricaria is cross reactive with Ambrosia and Artemisia Subiza 1989
Allergy to Matricaria chamomilla van Ketel 1987
Microscopic examination of encephalitic brain tissue from 6 steers poisoned by Matricaria nigellifolia indicates the lowest total dose of plant that proved toxic was 10 g/kg Newsholme 1984
370 g/kg of the milled, dried Marticaria nigellifolia from a batch that had caused pushing disease in cattle when given at doses as low as 10 g/kg showed no harm to sheep after 60 days Newsholme 1984
The sensitizing capacity of composite plants. VII. Experimental studies with extracts and compounds of Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert and Anthemis cotula L[Article in German] Hausen 1984
Allergy to Matricaria chamomilla. van Ketel 1982
Allergy to chamomile tea. Casterline 1980
Of 25 patients allergic to Compositae plants 2 had positive patch test to Chamomile Hausen 1979
Patch test results from 15685 patients with chamomile and 14 other allergens [Article in German] Hegyi 1979
History of Record
June 2001
March 2023