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Scientific Name:
Humulus lupulus
Family Name:
Common Name:
hop, hops
Modern Methods of Preparation
Microencapsulation of hop extracts in maltodextrin protected the antioxidant compounds but did not hinder the loss of bitter acids during storage. Tatasciore 2023
An extract of hop leaves encapsulated in rapeseed lecithin nanoliposomes showed enhanced anti-inflammatory potential in a model of osteoarthritis in vitro. Velot 2022
Xanthohumol and isoxanthohumol immobilized on mesoporous silica (SBA-15) microparticles demonstrated enhanced antiproliferation effect against malignant mouse melanoma cells, in vitro, via inhibition of autophagy. Krajnović 2022
A nanoformulation comprising liposomes preserved and improved the antioxidant properties of a hydroalcoholic extract of Humulus lupulus, characterized for 24 compounds. Lela 2022
Xanthohumol and xanthohumol-loaded PLGA nanoparticles inhibited the viability and migration of malignant cutaneous melanoma cells, while promoting the M1 antitumor phenotype of macrophages, in vitro. Fonseca 2021
A study reports on the development of a novel method for the production of 8-prenylnaringenin-enriched hop products by way of magnesium oxide-catalyzed thermal isomerization of desmethylxanthohumol. Karabín 2021
Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles encapsulating xanthohumol reduced ocular surface damage and protected corneal epithelial cells from DNA damage induced by oxidative stress in models of dry eye disease. Ghosh 2021
An article reports on the design of electrospun fibers for the sustained release of resveratrol and xanthohumol that could inhibit breast cancer cells. Zhang 2019
Complexation with 2-hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin increased aqueous solubility of xanthohumol C (from hops) 650-fold; parenteral administration in rats achieved serum levels of 463.5 (±?120.9) ng/mL, suggesting usefulness in neuroregenerative applications. Kirchinger 2019
A study highlights the effects of equipment used for hop boiling on the antioxidant activity of wort during beer production. Koren 2019
Chitosan-based films loaded with supercritical CO2 hop extract showed antibacterial activity against foodborne pathogen Bacillus subtilis. Bajic 2019
Oral administration of micellar solubilized xanthohumol (2.5 mg/kg, for 8 weeks) achieved serum levels of 100-330 nmol/L, and ameliorated hepatic inflammation and steatosis, in a mouse model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease induced by a Western-type diet. Mahli 2019
Essential oils obtained from a Humulus lupulus supercritical CO2 extract by microwave-assisted or conventional hydrodistillation were found to contain 74.13%⁻89.32% (by weight) of β-myrcene. Tyśkiewicz 2018
Lupulone and xanthohumol, two constituents of hops, incorporated in chitosan nanoparticles, showed antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and Candida sp. Leonida 2018
A novel complex drug with an antiallergic (antihistamine) effect, comprised of 40%-ethanolic extracts of Humulus lupulus cones, Mentha piperita, and Menyanthes trifolia in addition to the main component loratadine, was designed. Kulikovskii 2017
"Knock-out" extracts of Humulus lupulus were used to establish that the estrogenicity of hops is due to 8-prenylnaringenin, while the cytotoxic and chemopreventive (NQO1) activities are due to xanthohumol. A "designer" extract was prepared to balance the properties. Dietz 2017
Electrospun fiber membrane loaded with xanthohumol for use as bone tissue engineering scaffold was developed. Qiao 2016
Of 35 commercial lager beers analyzed, those high in polyphenols and hop acids were perceived as having "harsh" and "progressive" bitterness; those conventionally hopped were "sharp" and "instant"; and those with light-stable tetrahydro-iso-α-acids were "diminishing" and "acidic." Oladokun 2016
A draft genome sequence of Pediococcus damnosus LMG 28219, a lactic acid bacterium capable of growing in beer, and its comparative analysis are provided. Snauwaert 2015
Chemical transformation of hop alpha-acids, beta-acids, xanthohumol, and alpha-humulene and beta-caryophyllene (sesquiterpenes highly characteristic of hops) is considered to improve the brewing process efficiency. Steenackers 2015
The role of plasmids in the resistance of Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464, a beer spoiling bacterial isolate, to hops was investigated. Bergsveinson 2014
The study presents a compound-targeted approach to the preparation of hop extracts by targeting metabolites based on their liquid-liquid partition coefficients. Ramos Alvarenga 2014
The major product of biotransformation of xanthohumol by Aspergillus ochraceus was 8.6-fold stronger antioxidant than xanthohumol. Tronina 2014
Six biotransformation metabolites of xanthohumol were identified, and their anticancer and antioxidant properties were determined. Tronina 2013
Biotransformation of xanthohumol by selected fungi led to the production of compounds with stronger antioxidative and antitumor properties. Tronina 2013
Levels of prenylated flavonoids and other small molecules decreased during beer storage, but the variation was less pronounced in cold temperature-stored beer, compared to beer stored at room temperature. Heuberger 2012
A novel prenyl-phloroglucinol derivative induced growth inhibition and cell death in glioma cells, but not in primary human astrocytes. Lu 2012
A method of synthesis of chalcones, including xanthohumol, is described. Kakati 2011
The fate of pesticides during beer brewing was explored. Inoue 2011
The mechanisms of the resistance of beer-spoiling bacteria to hop compounds are investigated. Behr 2010
Cytotoxic, anti-oxidative, and anti-inflammatory effects of phase-II metabolites and several derivatives of xanthohumol were assessed. Vogel 2010
This article focuses on the molecular mechanisms of organogenic nodules formation in hops, the process potentially useful for biotechnological production of hop secondary metabolites. Fortes 2010
Determination of the beer-spoilage potential of bacterial isolates was performed in ethanol-containing hop-gradient agar plates. Haakensen 2009
Dipping solutions of hops beta acids controlled the growth of Listeria monocytogenes on frankfurters. Shen 2009
Hop resistance in beer-spoilage-associated Pediococcus bacteria isolates is not associated with resistance to the antibiotic compounds commonly used for the treatment of human infections. Haakensen 2009
Antibacterial activity and beer-stabilizing capabilities of hop-derived iso alpha-acids and their hydrogenated derivates were determined. Caballero 2009
A strain of Trametes versicolor, a turkey-tail mushroom, was the most effective in fully degrading humulones and lupulones in 4 days of dark incubation or after 36 hours in the light. Huszcza 2008
Hop beta-acids delayed bacterial degradation of thick juice, an intermediate product in beet sugar production. Justé 2008
Trans-piceid and trans-resveratrol content of hop decreased during pelletization and after 1 year of storage at 4 degrees C. Spent hop is considered to be the most promising material for stilbene extraction from hop. Jerkovic 2008
The foam-stabilizing power of iso-alpha-acids and reduced iso-alpha-acids in unhopped lager beer was determined. Kunimune 2008
Hops inhibited the growth of several bacterial species during beer preparation, with the effect enhanced by pulsed electric field. Galvagno 2007
With the optimized technology, the maximal extracting amount of flavonoids from Humulus lupulus was 78 mg x g(-1). [Article in Chinese] Xiong 2006
Photodegradation of isohumulones, which leads to the lightstruck flavor in beer, was studied in detail. Heyerick 2005
Photodegradation of isohumulones, dihydroisohumulones, tetrahydroisohumulones, and humulinones - hop-derived compounds in beer, was studied. Huvaere 2005
Increase of xanthohumol content in beer, which is usually lost due to various factors, to more than 10 mg/L was achieved by adding hops later in the wort boiling, using dark (roasted) malt extracts and xanthohumol-enriched hop products, and other methods. Wunderlich 2005
Wort boiling temperatures have a high impact on the foam stability of beer, due to their effect on the content and activity of lipid transfer protein 1. Van Nierop 2004
The resistance of beer-spoiling lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus brevis isolates to compounds from hops was demonstrated to correlate with their resistance to increase in the acidity, thus allowing a non-invasive screening method for the bacterial resistance. Yansanjav 2004
The mechanisms of degradation of isohumulones - the main bittering agents in beer - by light-induced reactions are proposed. Huvaere 2004
Photolysis of hop-derived trans-iso-alpha-acids and trans-tetrahydroiso-alpha-acids was studied in detail. Novel reactions were found to occur, including photoenolization of trans-isohumulone and a retro oxa-di-pi-methane rearrangement in several compounds. Heyerick 2003
The known mechanisms of hop resistance in beer-spoiling bacteria and novel screening techniques are reviewed. Sakamoto 2003
The agricultural by-products of the hop plant (Humulus lupulus L.) were investigated to determine their potential for use in the removal of heavy lead (II) ions from contaminated aqueous solutions. Gardea-Torresdey 2002
Photodegradation of iso-a-acids (isohumulones), the principal bittering agents from hops in beer, was studied by time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance. Burns 2001
The extraction efficiency, chemical modification, adsorption to insoluble malt proteins and yeast cells, and solubility of prenylated chalcones from hops (xanthohumol, desmethylxanthohumol, and 3'-geranylchalconaringenin) during beer preparation were studied. Stevens 1999
An antigen highly specific for beer-spoiling strains of Lactobacillus brevis was characterized and found to be able to distinguish between Pediococcus beer spoilers and non-spoilers. Yasui 1997
Hop extracts inhibited the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in certain foods and in culture. Larson 1996
Pesticide residues in hops can be extracted by liquid CO2 Williams 1994
[Phytogenic sedatives-hypnotics--does a combination of valerian and hops have a value in the modern drug repertoire]? Kammerer 1993
[Intracellular virus inclusions in hops affected by infectious chlorosis]. Boiko 1966
History of Record
November 1999
MAJOR REVISION BY: Michael C. Tims, PhD. candidate
June 2001
March 2023