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Scientific Name:
Humulus lupulus
Family Name:
Common Name:
hop, hops
Safety Data
A combination of xanthohumol with phenethyl isothiocyanate produced superior effects on the Nrf2 pathway, as compared to these and other single agents, and induced cell cycle arrest, promoting apoptotic and autophagy, in human pancreatic cancer cells. Cykowiak 2021
A study describes how use of unfiltered beer based marinades positively affects the fatty acid composition of grilled meat (beef and moose) by stabilizing lipid oxidation. Manful 2019
Late hop addition during beer brewing resulted in higher phenolic content and antioxidant activity; in addition, use of malts with high raw protein content preserved bitter iso-a-acids from oxidative aging during beer production. Julia 2019
Due to potential interactions with the anti-cancer drugs, consumption of beer is to be avoided during chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan, according to the in vitro study. Ambrož 2019
Xanthohumol enhanced the antitumor action of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in neuroblastoma cells, via upregulation of death receptors. Engelsgjerd 2019
Hop compounds xanthohumol, isoxanthohumol and 8-prenylnaringenin inhibited human carbonyl reductase 1 (CBR1), an important enzyme involved in the metabolism of such drugs as daunorubicin, in colon cancer cells. Seliger 2019
Hop compounds xanthohumol and 8-prenylnaringenin antagonized the estrogenic effects of Fusarium mycotoxins, known to frequently contaminate cereal products, including beer. Aichinger 2018
Xanthohumol decreased the uptake of P-glycoprotein substrates in human intestinal epithelial cells, suggesting a potential for food-drug interactions. Nabekura 2018
8-Prenylnaringenin (a known phytoestrogen from hops) was found to increase the proliferation of estrogen-dependent cells induced by zearalenone (a mycoestrogen), whereas no significant interaction was observed for xanthohumol. Hessenberger 2017
Isoxanthohumol sensitized doxorubicin-resistant MCF-7/ADR cells to the chemotherapeutic drug, via competitive inhibition of ABCB1-mediated doxorubicin efflux. Liu 2017
Isoxanthohumol strongly sensitized melanoma cells to paclitaxel in vivo. Krajnović 2016
The proteins associated with the response of Lactobacillus brevis (resistance vs. sensitivity) to hops were studied. Schurr 2015
Hop prenylflavonoids inhibited the efflux transporter breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2), important for xenobiotic bioavailability and multidrug resistance. Tan 2014
Compounds from hops inhibit human cytochrome P450 (CYP) isomers 2C8 (93%), 2C9 (88%), 2C19 (70%), and 1A2 (27%) with IC50 values of 0.8, 0.9, 3.3, and 9.4 μg/mL, respectively. Yuan 2014
The influence of xanthohumol on the uptake of butyrate by intestinal cells was explored. Gonçalves 2011
Stout beers affect the metabolism of health products, such as pharmaceutical drugs, by CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 isozymes. Foster 2011
Hop-containing products could potentially affect CYP2C9, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP3A7, and CYP19 activities due to bitter acids. Foster 2009
Ethanolic extracts of Aroma and Magnum hops varieties grown in Serbia reduced glutathione content and activities of catalase and glutathione peroxidase in the liver homogenate and increased the level of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), when administered in combination with paracetamol. Jakovljevic 2009
Acute exposure to isoxanthohumol reduced folic acid uptake by human placental cells, while chronic exposure to xanthohumol or isoxanthohumol increased the uptake. Keating 2008
Xanthohumol modulates cellular uptake and transport of ketoconazole. Fan 2008
Xanthohumol reduced P-glycoprotein-mediated transport of cimetidine and increased the basolateral uptake rate of the drug in Caco-2 and LLC-PK1 cells. Taur 2008
Extracts of hop varieties Aroma and Magnum, grown in Serbia, disturb the hepatocyte function when administered with paracetamol. Jakovljevic 2008
Extracts of hops (Magnum, Aroma, and wild hops) suppressed the action of cocaine, while the extracts of wild hops and the Aroma hops variety increased the analgesic action of paracetamol, in mice. Horvat 2007
Extracts of the Magnum and Aroma hop varieties reduced the hypnotic effects of pentobarbital and diazepam, while the wild hop extracts did not. Raskovic 2007
The extracts of the Magnum and Aroma hop varieties, but not the wild hop extracts, suppressed the hypnotic action of pentobarbital and diazepam. Raskovic 2007
Isoxanthohumol, a flavonoid from hops, markedly inhibited folic acid uptake by intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. Lemos 2007
The effects of isoxanthohumol and 8-prenylnaringenin - both flavonoids from hops, on cytochrome P450 isoforms 1A1 and 1A2, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase, and glutathione S-transferase A1 were studied in cultured human hepatocytes. Gross-Steinmeyer 2004
Prenylated flavonoids found in hops and, in particular, xanthohumol inhibited oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein in vitro; xanthohumol combined with alpha-tocopherol inhibited the oxidation, induced by copper sulfate, completely. Miranda 2000
Xanthohumol, 8-prenylnaringenin, and isoxanthohumol, compounds found in hops, inhibited cytochrome P450 1A2-induced mutagenic activation and genotoxic activity of a heterocyclic amine found in cooked foods. Miranda 2000
Prenylflavanones from hops, including xanthohumol and dehydrocycloxanthohumol hydrate, were found to induce quinone reductase, but not cytochrome P450 1A1 in a mouse hepatoma cell line. Miranda 2000
History of Record
November 1999
MAJOR REVISION BY: Michael C. Tims, PhD. candidate
June 2001
March 2023