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Scientific Name:
Humulus lupulus
Family Name:
Common Name:
hop, hops
Evidence of Activity
Comparative analysis of 50 wild hop (Humulus lupulus) samples collected from different locations in Northern France identified high genetic and chemical variation, suggesting that wild hops constitute a huge pool of chemical and genetic diversity. Paguet 2023
A study developed chromosome-level assembly of the Cascade hop (Humulus lupulus var. lupulus) genome, identifying a putative sex chromosome, and assessing the evolution of gene sequences, gene family expansion and contraction, and time of divergence from Cannabis sativa and other related species. Padgitt-Cobb 2022
A study reports on the development of two fingerprinting sets for the verification of clonal identity of hop (Humulus lupulus) cultivars: a 9-SSR fingerprinting set containing the HI-AGA7 sex-linked primer pair, and a competitive allele specific PCR assay cost efficient for genotyping large numbers of cultivated samples. Driskill 2022
An article reports the complete chloroplast genome of a hop cultivar, Humulus lupulus cv. 'Fubei-1', from China. Wang 2021
A study investigated the effects of heat and low-water stress on the expression of genes involved in secondary metabolite production in hops leaf, stem, and root tissue (Humulus lupulus cv. USDA Cascade). The first transcriptome from hop root tissue was also determined. Eriksen 2021
A draft haplotype-phased assembly of the Cascade hop (Humulus lupulus L. var. lupulus) genome is presented which shows genes with greater sequence divergence enriched for stress-response, growth, and flowering functions and a homolog of cannabidiolic acid synthase expressed in multiple tissues. Padgitt-Cobb 2021
A study analyzed the expression profile (transcriptome) of genes involved in the trichome (lupulin gland) development in hop (Humulus lupulus) leaves, bracts, and trichomes, as well as in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, such as prenylflavonoids, bitter acids, and essential oils. Mishra 2019
A genetic study identified male-specific DNA markers in hops (Humulus lupulus). Cerenak 2019
Genetic analysis was combined with biochemical fingerprinting to characterize 56 commercial hop (Humulus lupulus) varieties. Van Holle 2019
The complex chromosome dynamics of hop (H. lupulus), known to baffle breeders for years, was elucidated using 3D cytogenetic analysis of hop pollen mother cells. Easterling 2018
Transgenic hops (Humulus lupulus) overexpressing HlWRKY1 and HlWDR1 transcription factors showed upregulation of genes involved in prenylflavonoid and bitter acid biosynthesis pathways. Mishra 2018
Researchers determined plastome (plastid genome) sequences of ten Cannabaceae (sensu novo) genera (including Humulus and Cannabis) providing valuable genetic information for the identification of the species. Zhang 2018
A protein was identified from hop (H. lupulus) glandular trichomes that was capable to enhance demethylxanthohumol production by 2.3-fold. Ban 2018
The HlMyb8 transcription factor, isolated from the lupulin glands in hops (H. lupulus), induced biosynthesis of flavonols but not prenylflavonoids or bitter acids by chalcone synthase HlCHS_H1. Kocábek 2018
Repetitive genomic content was studied in three Humulus lupulus varieties, along with those of Cannabis sativa. Pisupati 2018
Atypical meiotic configurations, such as multiple, atypical, and nondisomic chromosome complexes, were observed in hops during genotyping of 4512 worldwide accessions, with implications for breeding and cultivation. Zhang 2017
Cannabis sativa DNA profiling study identified non-specific peaks produced with Humulus lupulus. Houston 2017
An online hop (Humulus lupulus var. lupulus) genomics database, "," is announced. Hill 2017
Comprehensive analysis of the proteome of purified glandular trichomes of hop female cones was performed, with 1,015 proteins identified using 2D-LC-MS/MS. At least 40 enzymes were found to be involved in the synthesis of terpenoid-derived compounds. Champagne 2017
The content of lupulin glands (extracellular trichomes containing bitter acids, xanthohumol, volatile monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes) was analysed in 39 cultivars and advanced selections of hops, providing reliable results for the main quality indicators used in hops breeding. Killeen 2017
Possible cis-acting regulatory elements, putatively involved in the transcriptional regulation of prenylflavonoid and bitter acids biosynthesis in Humulus lupulus, were predicted using available information on the draft genome of the plant. Duraisamy 2016
The role of HlWRKY transcription factors in the biosynthesis of prenylflavonids and bitter acids in hop (Humulus lupulus) is elucidated. Matoušek 2016
An extrachromosomal circular DNA, aligned with a microsatellite region in the Humulus lupulus genome and with no coding sequence, was identified in hops for the first time in the family Cannabaceae. Diaz-Lara 2016
Polymorphisms of chs_H1 gene, encoding the "true" chalcone synthase, in Ukrainian hop varieties were determined. [Article in Russian] Venzer 2015
Humulus lupulus microRNAs were identified and characterized. Mishra 2015
Simple SNP-based minimal marker genotyping for Humulus lupulus identification and variety validation was developed. Henning 2015
The complete chloroplast genomes Humulus lupulus 'Saazer' was sequenced. Vergara 2015
The feasibility of genomic selection for the improvement of essential oil yield from several commercially harvested perennial species, including hops, is investigated. Kainer 2015
Complete genome sequence of a Carnation mottle virus, a single positive-strand RNA virus infecting hop plants, is provided. Jo 2015
Complete genome sequence of a hop latent virus, a single-stranded RNA virus that mainly infects hop plants, is provided. Jo 2015
The prenylation steps of the β-bitter acid biosynthesis in hops were elucidated. Li 2015
A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the identification and quantification of acyl coenzyme A species, including isomers, in plants and applied to hops. Unexpected and previously unreported findings are included. Purves 2015
Draft genomes of hop cultivars 'Saazer' and 'Shinshu Wase' and a Japanese wild hop (H. lupulus var. cordifolius; also known as Karahanasou) were obtained. The data provided insights into the genes involved in taste and flavor production in hops. Natsume 2015
The polyphenol content of hop cones following treatment with a flavanone-3-hydroxylase (F3H) inhibitor was analyzed. Kavalier 2014
The importance of branched short-chain fatty acid:CoA ligases in the biosynthesis of branched-short-chain-acyl-coenzymes A and their localization in the glandular trichomes were established. Xu 2013
This article reports on the transcriptome analysis of bitter acid biosynthesis, including major precursor pathways, in the lupulin glands, glandless cones, and leaves of hop plants. Clark 2013
Hop stunt viroid infection causes a substantial decrease in the expression of phenylpropanoid metabolite-producing enzymes. Füssy 2013
A quantitative trait loci genetic map was established for hops to determine genes that may provide resistance to Verticillium albo-atrum, the causal agent of Verticillium wilt, a disease of hops. Jakse 2013
The capacity of a myrcene synthase in Humulus lupulus to produce isoprene is documented. Sharkey 2013
Xyloglucan-specific endoglucanase inhibitor proteins, which inhibit the activity of cell wall-degrading enzymes during fungal infection-induced destruction of plant cell wall, were identified in hops. Habrylo 2013
Genetic factors related to plant sex identification, yield capacity, and aroma/flavor chemistry of hops were identified. McAdam 2013
This article reports on the successful expression of HlPT-1, an enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of prenylated compounds in hops, in baculovirus-infected insect cells. Tsurumaru 2012
Transcription factors regulating the chalcone synthase CHS_H1 gene in hop lupulin glands are sequenced and analyzed as to their functions. Matoušek 2012
Simple sequence repeat motifs were analyzed in hops based on the expressed sequence tags data. Singh 2012
Inverse Virtual Screening in silico method was applied to the search of new molecular targets of xanthohumol and isoxanthohumol. Lauro 2012
The delimitation of hop varieties neomexicanus and pubescens as species is supported by the application of morphological and genetic criteria. Reeves 2011
The genomic variation in hops was analyzed with a high-throughput, diversity arrays technology. Howard 2011
The roles of polyamines and arginine decarboxylase in organogenic nodule formation in hops were investigated. Fortes 2011
Biochemical and structural properties of the recombinant, bifunctional nuclease from hops were determined. Podzimek 2011
Monoclonal antibodies against hop-derived prenylflavonoids were developed. Wyns 2011
Molecular cytogenetic mapping of hop sex chromosomes was performed. Divashuk 2011
The crystal structure of adenylate isopentenyltransferase from hops is reported. The enzyme is similar in structure to the bacterial and yeast isopentenyltransferases, but has distinctive differences in its binding affinities to its substrates. Chu 2010
Transcription factors HlbZip1 and HlbZip2 and their variants and subvariants, putatively involved in the regulation of lupulin metabolome in hops, were characterized, and their functional analysis was performed. Matousek 2010
The chemical and genetic differences between wild hops from Canada and the Caucasus mountains were analyzed. Patzak 2010
This article reports on the potential functional importance of mono- and di-isopentenyl diadenosine polyphosphates in plants, based on the study of hop adenylate isopentenyltransferase. Chu 2010
The application of DNA-based methods to the characterization of genetic diversity in the hop varieties in Ukraine is supported. [Article in Ukrainian] Syvolap 2010
Xanthohumol was found to inhibit two isozymes of human acyl-coenzyme A:diacylglycerol acyltransferase. Inokoshi 2009
Micropropagated hop plants exhibit epigenetic variations, which may accumulate in subsequent subcultures. Peredo 2009
The heterodimeric geranyl(geranyl)diphosphate synthase from Humulus lupulus was characterized. Wang 2009
Three cDNA clones specific for allergic asthma were obtained from Humulus pollen cDNA library. [Article in Chinese] Xu 2009
The O-methyltransferase that catalyzes the final step in the xanthohumol production in hop glandular trichomes was identified. Nagel 2008
A genetic transformation of a hop variety 'Eroica' was achieved using particle bombardment. Batista 2008
DNA sequence and expression variation of hop valerophenone synthase were assessed. Castro 2008
New polymorphic dinucleotide and trinucleotide microsatellite loci for Humulus lupulus L. were developed. Jakse 2008
Cross species amplification was observed between Humulus lupulus (hops) and Cannabis sativa material for three loci, but there was no allelic overlap. Howard 2008
Elimination of hop latent viroid from hop pollen is dependent on the expression of HBN1 nuclease in the pollen. Matousek 2008
Hop monoterpene synthase and sesquiterpene synthase were identified from the expressed sequence tag sequence collection and expressed in Escherichia coli, where they catalyzed the formation of myrcene and caryophyllene and humulene, respectively, from geranyl pyrophoshpate. Wang 2008
Cold storage and cryopreservation of hops induce no genetic changes in the material but were characterized by epigenetic changes typical for the in vitro establishment procedure. Peredo 2008
The metabolomic and molecular analysis of the processes determinant in the organogenic nodules development in hops was performed. Fortes 2008
Genetic diversity in hop cultivars was assessed using new sequence-tagged site (STS) markers. Patzak 2007
Expression of the stilbene synthase gene from grapevine in hops lead to increased production of resveratrol and its derivatives in the transgenic plants, without affecting plant morphology, flower development, and typical hop secondary metabolites. Schwekendiek 2007
A putative transcription factor, HlMyb3, from hops was screened for biological activity in heterologous transgenic plants. Matousek 2007
The oligofamily of chs_H1 genes that codetermine the biosynthesis of prenylated chalcones in hop was characterized in the hop cultivar 'Osvald's 72.' Matousek 2006
The map locations and effects of quantitative trait loci were estimated for alpha-acid content in hop (Humulus lupulus L.) using amplified fragment length polymorphism and microsatellite marker (simple sequence repeat) genetic linkage maps constructed from a double pseudotestcross. Cerenak 2006
Real-time PCR proved to be a method for identifying individual herbal drugs in a tea mixture consisting of 4 drugs including Humulus lupulus with a single DNA extraction in a single PCR run, since its limit of detection is lower than that for restriction analysis. Slanc 2006
Wild hops collected widely from the Northern Hemisphere have been analysed, assessing the genetic diversity and the geographical distribution of haplotypes, to investigate the evolution and phylogeny of hops, Humulus lupulus. Murakami 2006
Efficient extraction of high-quality total RNA from various hop tissues (Humulus lupulus L.) was carried out. The protocol developed is used to produce cDNA-AFLP fingerprints of hop cones and leaves for genetic screening. De Keukeleire 2006
Biolabelling conditions in hop cones of xanthohumol were studied by feeding [U-13C]glucose, [1-13C]glucose, [ring-13C6]phenylalanine, [2-13C]sodium acetate or [2-13C]malonic acid as biosynthetic precursors to hop sprouts. Berwanger 2005
The enzyme activities of five chalcone synthase homologs, cDNA-encoded, from hops were investigated. Okada 2004
A cDNA encoding adenylate isopentenyltransferase (AIPT) was cloned and sequenced from cones of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) by RT-PCR using oligonucleotide primers based on the conserved sequences of Arabidopsis thaliana AIPT isozymes. Sakano 2004
Using a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction based on the DNA homology of chalcone synthase (EC and valerophenone synthase (EC of hop (Humulus lupulus), a cDNA encoding a polyketide synthase in C. sativa was identified. Raharjo 2004
Genetic diversity among 26 Russian and European cultivars of the common hop (Humulus lupulus L.) was studied using the ISSR-PCR technique. [Article in Russian] Danilova 2003
Valerophenone synthase, a member of the chalcone synthase super-family, catalyzes the biosynthesis reaction of the hop resin that significantly accumulates in the cone's secretory gland called the "lupulin gland". Okada 2003
An efficient procedure for direct organogenesis and regeneration of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) was established and for the first time Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of hop (cv. "Tettnanger") was achieved. Horlemann 2003
Samples like Gingko biloba, Humulus lupulus L., etc. were used to produce unique DNA profiles that are characteristic of the species. Xu 2002
The identification of 12 Fusarium strains isolated from diseased hops (Humulus lupulus, L.) was achieved by a strategy based on cellobiohydrolase-C: cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence analysis. Hatsch 2002
All of the 159 native hop genotypes contained detectable levels of xanthohumol and xanthogalenol, prenylflavonoids recently reported to have mammalian anti-cancer activity. Hampton 2002
The genetic variability of samples collected on sagebrush (Artemisia sp.), hop (Humulus lupulus L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) was studied by comparing the allozyme frequencies for six polymorphic loci. Bourguet 2000
The differences between Cannabis sativa and Humulus lupulus was clearly identified using single-strand conformation polymorphism of PCR products (PCR-SSCP) analysis. Kohjyouma 2000
It was found that flow cytometry can be efficiently used for determination of aneuploidy in Humulus lupulus. Sesek 2000
The biosynthesis of humulone, an antibacterial bitter acid, in hops was studied. Goese 1999
The structure of a chalcone synthase, possibly involved in hop bitter acid production, was determined. Schröder 1999
A wide spectrum of hop 7SL RNA-encoding sequences was detected by temperature gradient-gel electrophoresis and four hop 7SL RNA genes were cloned and characterized. Matousek 1999
Valerophenone synthase is a polyketide synthase that catalyzes formation of phloroglucinol derivatives in the synthesis of the bitter acids in hops, and has similar action as chalcone synthase in flavonoid biosynthesis. Zuurbier 1998
Sequence of the nuclear ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacer II from Hemp varied very little among cultivars, but was consistently different from that of hops Siniscalco Gigliano 1997
Xanthohumol, a chalcone from methanol extract, inhibits rat liver diacylglycerol acyltransferase at 50 microM Tabata 1997
Xenovulene, containing a humulene moiety, inhibits binding of benzodiazepine and flunitrazepam to the GABA-benzodiazepine receptor Ainsworth 1995
History of Record
November 1999
MAJOR REVISION BY: Michael C. Tims, PhD. candidate
June 2001
March 2023