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Scientific Name:
Humulus lupulus
Family Name:
Common Name:
hop, hops
Evidence for Efficacy (Human Data)
Clinical Trials
Intraduodenal but not intragastric administration of a bitter hop extract (250 but not 100 mg) had but modest and transient effects on pyloric pressure and peptide YY, with no effects on cholecystokinin, appetite, gastrointestinal symptoms, or energy intake in healthy-weight men (N= 15). Bitarafan 2023
An adjuvant treatment comprising a daily dose of Humulus lupus extract providing 4.5 mg/kg body weight of xanthohumol significantly reduced mortality (20% vs. 48%) and shortened the clinical course (9 ± 3 days vs. 22 ± 8 days) in adult patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and treated for acute respiratory failure following admission to the ICU (N = 72). Dabrowski 2022
In a randomized controlled trial, a 2-year clinical intervention comprising daily consumption of alcoholic or non-alcoholic beer resulted in increased levels of bone formation markers but did not significantly affect bone score and mineral density, compared to the control group, in postmenopausal women (N = 31). Trius-Soler 2022
A single low dose of a xanthohumol-rich (75%) hop extract administered to normal women (N = 9) attenuated proinflammatory cytokine release from peripheral blood mononuclear cells ex vivo, associated with suppression of sCD14/TLR4 signaling. Jung 2022
An article presents the protocol of a phase II, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial to be conducted on the safety and tolerability of xanthohumol and its effects on markers of inflammation, platelet function, disease activity index, stool microbiome, as well as metabolite profiles in patients with Crohn's disease. Langley 2022
In a randomized, prospective, placebo-controlled, double-blind human study (N = 40), Humulus lupulus extract (1%) incorporated in an oil-in-water emulsion cream showed anti-inflammatory protection against UVB-induced erythema comparable to 1% hydrocortisone acetate; the alternative, water-in-oil emulsion preparation demonstrated drastically weaker effects. Hurth 2022
In a randomized, double-blind, crossover human trial (N = 19), administration of a bitter hop (Humulus lupulus) extract reduced total energy intake and postprandial insulin production, while inducing hormones involved in appetite control, in healthy-weight men. Walker 2022
In an open-label, single-arm pilot study (N = 97), consumption of a non-alcoholic beer containing 35 mg of matured hop bitter acids for 3 weeks improved total mood, anxiety, depression, fatigue, vigor, and sleep quality in healthy adults. Fukuda 2021
In a double-blind, randomized controlled trial (N = 78), a combination of soy and hop extracts (190 mg), administered for 12 weeks, decreased self-reported symptom scores, compared to placebo, in women with moderate or severe menopausal symptoms. Kim 2021
In a parallel controlled intervention trial (N = 37), consumption of non-alcoholic (660 mg/day) or alcoholic (330 mL/day) beer for 6 months reduced menopause-related symptom severity, with alcoholic beer associated with the improvement of psychological discomforts, and non-alcoholic beer improving the lipid profile and blood pressure, in postmenopausal women. Trius-Soler 2021
A review of herbal interventions in insomnia related to anxiety lists a combination of valerian with hops (Humulus lupulus) and passionflower as giving the best results in clinical tests. Borrás 2021
A systematic review of 33 randomized clinical trials suggests phytoestrogens, including the hop plant (Humulus lupulus), may alleviate urogenital symptoms associated with menopause and promote sexual satisfaction and quality of life. Abdi 2021
A systematic review summarizes results obtained from human as well as preclinical studies on the role of bitter acids from hops (Humulus lupulus) in the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome and related disorders such as diabetes, dislipidemia, insulin resistance, and inflammation. Ponticelli 2021
In a randomized, double-blind study, intake of matured hop bitter acids (35 mg/day) for 12 weeks improved verbal fluency and Stroop test performance, as well as subjective fatigue and anxiety in subjects with self-reported cognitive decline. Fukuda 2019
In an open-label, single-arm trial, consumption of a beverage containing hop-derived iso-alpha-acids (3 mg/190 mL) for 4 weeks increased Brain Healthcare Quotient based on gray matter volume (GM-BHQ) in subjects = 60 years of age. Kita 2019
A preliminary study prospectively identified potential effects of a nutritional support formula (containing xanthohumol) in adults with inflammatory bowel disease. Ryan 2019
In a clinical study, a combination of Cucurbita pepo seed oil, Rhus aromatica bark extract, and Humulus lupulus cone extract reduced overactive bladder symptoms in women after one week, with further improvements observed for up to 12 weeks of treatment. Gauruder-Burmester 2019
In a randomized clinical study, electrophoresis with a combination of extracts of hops and alfalfa improved pain, joint function, and quality of life in patients with knee osteoarthritis, with the effects maintained for up to 12 months after the treatment. Babaskin 2019
A review of clinical trials of plant-derived natural agents for the regulation of glycosylated hemoglobin identified at least one such trial with a hop constituent, isohumulone. Rezaeiamiri 2019
Treatment with a bitter hops extract (Amarasate®; 100-250 mg at 16 and 20 h into a 24-h fast) decreased hunger in subjects undergoing intermittent fasting. Walker 2019
β-Eudesmol, reported to accumulate in a particular hop cultivar, decreased salivary levels of a noradrenaline metabolite, a marker of sympathetic nerve activity, in healthy subjects after mental stress. Ohara 2018
Combination of a matured hop extract with light intensity exercise appeared to induce greater reduction of visceral fat in healthy overweight Japanese subjects. Suzuki 2018
A botanical face cleanser with hops and willow bark extract, applied twice a day on the forehead, decreased skin sebum levels in individuals with normal-to-oily skin. Weber 2018
Oral bioavailability of 8-prenylnaringenin from hops (Humulus lupulus) was up to 5.2-fold higher than that of 6-prenylnaringenin in healthy men and women after a single oral dose (500 mg), in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Calvo-Castro 2018
Administration of spent hops in a rice protein matrix resulted in higher plasma levels of xanthohumol and its metabolites (isoxanthohumol, 6- and 8-prenylnaringenin), compared to spent hops powder alone, in healthy humans. O'Connor 2018
A phytotherapeutic product containing astragalus, thyme, lavender, hop, equisetum, red clover, cypress and agrimonia appeared to cause slight improvements, not achieving statistical significance, in mild stress urinary incontinence or mixed urinary incontinence, in women. Risi 2017
An isohumulone drug, KDT501, administered at escalating doses up to 1000 mg every 12 hours for a total of 28 days, decreased plasma triglycerides and tumor necrosis factor-α, while elevating plasma adiponectin, in obese humans. Kern 2017
Supplementation with a dry extract of Humulus lupulus (two 0.2g capsules, once daily, for 4 weeks) significantly decreased Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) scores for anxiety, stress, and depression, compared with baseline and placebo, in young, apparently healthy adults. Kyrou 2017
A phytoestrogen-rich preparation of Humulus lupulus cone powder, Vitis vinifera seeds, Camellia sinensis leaves, and Allium sativum modified measures of nervousness, weakness, and formication, quality of life measures, and compoments of Kupperman Index, in healthy perimenopausal women. Kirichenko 2017
A herbal compound composed of valerian, hop, and jujube (Vagonotte; 2 pills/day 30 min before scheduled bedtime) decreased time of sleep onset, total slept time, and night awakenings frequency in subjects (n=120) with sleep disturbances, compared to placebo. Palmieri 2017
Supplementation with LZComplex3 (lactium™, Zizyphus, Humulus lupulus, magnesium and vitamin B6) for 2 weeks improved sleep quality and related outcomes, compared to baseline, in adults with mild insomnia; the improvements and the adverse events rate did not differ from those in the placebo group. Scholey 2017
Acute ingestion of an isomerized hop extract improved endothelial function, assessed by flow-mediated vasodilation, 30 and 120 minutes after the ingestion in smokers and non-smokers; in vitro, the extract ameliorated the effects of hypoxia and angiotensin II on human aortic endothelial cells. Tomita 2017
Consumption of a xanthohumol-containing drink (12 mg xanthohumol/day) by human subjects prevented DNA damage induced by major dietary carcinogens in their lymphocytes ex vivo, partially explained by induction of α-GST. Pichler 2016
A combination (500 mg) of grape seed tannins, green tea leaves, hop cone powder, and garlic suppressed the formation of new atherosclerotic lesions and inhibited the existing plaque growth, compared to a placebo, in postmenopausal women (n=175). Myasoedova 2016
Evidence of DNA protection from consuming a drink with xanthohumol (12 mg/day) was obtained in a randomized cross-over trial and a follow-up randomized study with a parallel design. Ferk 2016
Administration of a matured hop extract, containing matured hop bitter acids (oxidation products of iso-α-acids; 35 mg in 350 mL of test beverage), for 12 weeks reduced body fat, as well as visceral fat area and total fat area, in healthy overweight humans, with no toxic or adverse effects observed. Morimoto-Kobayashi 2016
The protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical studies, conducted between 2000 and 2015, on the use of hop for menopausal vasomotor symptoms is described. Abdi 2016
Hop tablets, administered for 4-12 weeks, effectively reduced early menopausal symptoms, assessed using Greene scale, and hot flashes, compared to placebo. Aghamiri 2015
Consumption of a non-alcoholic beer improved quality of sleep in university students. Franco 2014
A combination of standardized extracts of Valeriana officinalis, Passiflora incarnata, and Humulus lupulus (hops) was found to be equally effective with zolpidem for the treatment of primary insomnia. Maroo 2013
A combination of tetrahydro-iso-alpha acids from hops with niacin inhibited pro-inflammatory cytokines in human aortic endothelial and monocytic cells, improved flow-mediated vasodilation, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in human volunteers, more effectively than niacin alone. Lamb 2012
Addition of phytosterols, soy protein, and extracts of hops and Acacia to a Mediterranean-style, low-glycemic-load diet decreases the blood levels of atherogenic lipoproteins and increases the large-to-small HDL particles ratio, compared to the base diet alone, in women with metabolic syndrome. Jones 2012
Consumption of non-alcoholic beer, that included hops, improved night sleep quality in healthy female nurses working rotating and/or night shifts. Franco 2012
Supplementation with hop rho iso-alpha acids, berberine, vitamin D₃, and vitamin K₁ reduces bone turnover markers in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome. Lamb 2011
Supplementation with hop rho iso-alpha acids, berberine, vitamin D3, and vitamin K1, in combination with a Mediterranean-style low-glycemic-load diet and limited aerobic exercise, suppressed bone turnover markers in postmenopausal women, compared with the diet and exercise regimen alone. Holick 2010
A hop extract demonstrated inconsistent efficacy for relief of menopausal symptoms, compared with placebo; the efficacy became significant after time-specific estimates were performed. Erkkola 2010
A dietary supplement containing polyunsaturated fatty acids and a hops extract did not have a significant effect on the quality of sleep in adults with chronic primary insomnia, compared to the placebo group. Cornu 2010
Valerian combination with hops was associated with improvements in primary insomnia in adults, according to the review of clinical trials. Salter 2010
Supplementation with soy protein, phytosterols, hops rho iso-alpha acids, and Acacia nilotica proanthocyanidins improved total cholesterol profile in adults with metabolic syndrome, compared with control subjects consuming a modified Mediterranean-style, low-glycemic-load diet. Lerman 2010
The combination of rho-iso-alpha acids from hops and proanthocyanidins from Acacia nilotica reduced total triglycerides, total triglycerides to HDL cholesterol ratio, fasting insulin, and HOMA scores in individuals with metabolic syndrome. Minich 2010
The bioavailability and microbial conversion of hop phytoestrogen isoxanthohumol was compared in subjects administered mixtures of the compound with phytoestrogens from soy and flax. Bolca 2009
Administration of a probiotic species with hop extracts leads to alleviation of interindividual differences in the conversion efficiency of isoxanthohumol to 8-prenylnaringenin by gut microflora and increased levels of 8-prenylnaringenin in individuals who do not harbour the appropriate bacteria. Possemiers 2009
A combination of hops with zinc ricinoleate in a deodorant stick reduced malodor scores in the clinical underarm odor-reduction evaluation. Dumas 2009
A defined mixture of rho iso-alpha-acids from hops showed no gastrointestinal or cardviovascular toxicity, contrary to naproxen; inhibited CYP2C9; and produced a 54% reduction in osteoarthritis scores in human subjects, while showing no toxicity in a mouse study. Hall 2008
A single administration of valerian+hops liquid extracts combination caused significant changes in the EEG electrohypnogram, increased the time spent in sleep and deep sleep, and improved the subjective quality of sleep of the subjects who have taken the combination, compared with the placebo group. Dimpfel 2008
Hop polyphenols suppressed lactic acid, water-insoluble glucan production, and inhibited growth of Streptococcus mutans in vitro, and reduced dental plaque formation when administered in a tablet to healthy human subjects. Yaegaki 2008
A fixed combination of valerian and hops extracts was significantly superior to placebo in the treatment of non-organic insomnia, while an identical dose of the single valerian extract as that in the combination was not. Koetter 2007
A hop water extract improved the symptoms of allergy to Japanese cedar pollen in human subjects, in the double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Segawa 2007
A mouthrinse containing 0.1% hop bract polyphenols reduced dental plaque in subjects refraining from all dental hygiene other than the mouthrinse for 3 days, compared with placebo. Shinada 2007
A combination of rho iso-alpha acids from hops, rosemary, and oleanolic acid may be safe and effective for the treatment of osteoarthritis pain. Minich 2007
Two clinical trials performed to investigate the safety and efficacy of a medical device as gel form, containing hyaluronic acid, liposomes, phytoestrogens from Humulus lupulus extract, & Vitamin E, in post-menopausal women with urogenital atrophy revealed it to be a safe alternative treatment. Morali 2006
Daily intake of a hop extract, standardized on 8-prenylnaringenin as a potent phytoestrogen, exerted favorable effects on vasomotor symptoms and other menopausal discomforts in 67 menopausal women. Heyerick 2006
Meta050, a proprietary combination of reduced iso-alpha acids from hops, rosemary extract and oleanolic acid, statistically significantly decreased pain by 40-50% in arthritis subjects. Lukaczer 2005
Isohumulones, the bitter acids derived from hops, decreased blood glucose and hemoglobin A1c levels by 10.1% and 6.4%, respectively, after 8 weeks of supplementation. Yajima 2004
Valerian-hops combination, in a randomized double-blind comparison with benzodiazepine for 2 weeks, helped sleep disorder patients and had less withdrawal symptoms than with benzodiazepine Schmitz 1998
80 healthy adults in 4 groups: valerian, valerian+hops, flunitrazepam or placebo. Subjective sleep quality improved in all three medication groups, compared to placebo. Residual sedation (hangover) not confirmed Gerhard 1996
Isohumulone and tetrahydroisohumulone displayed a unique, dome-shaped time-intensity profile of bitterness perception, in humans. Guinard 1994
Valerian-hops combination aided sleep in a controlled clinical trial Muller-Limmroth 1977
History of Record
November 1999
MAJOR REVISION BY: Michael C. Tims, PhD. candidate
June 2001
March 2023