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Scientific Name:
Humulus lupulus
Family Name:
Common Name:
hop, hops
Evidence of Activity
Animal Studies
Supplementation with xanthohumol-enriched beer or a corresponding ethanol solution for 100 days did not have a protective effect against inoculated tumor cell growth or increase plasma antioxidant capacity, while ameliorating ethanol-induced liver damage, in a mouse model. Éliás 2023
Humulus lupulus (hops) extracts markedly improved learning abilities, ameliorated memory impairment, and reduced β-amyloid deposition both in the brain and femur of APP/PS1 mutated transgenic mice, suggesting protective effects against senior osteoporosis. Xia 2023
Xanthohumol exhibited sex-dependent effects on cognitive performance, improving task learning in female mice and reversal learning in male mice associated with changes in hippocampal diacylglycerol and ceramide levels and nuclear farsenoid X receptor expression, respectively. Kundu 2022
A combination of Cynanchum wilfordii and Humulus lupulus increased the values for hypothalamic serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, and estrogen receptors; reduced tail skin temperature, partially recovering serum estrogen, follicle-stimulating, and luteinizing hormone levels, and improved bone density in a mouse model of menopause. Kang 2022
Xanthohumol increased the levels of glucose transporter protein in the hippocampus and cortex, and affected the metabolism of several amino acids, including arginine, glycine, and threonine in a mouse model of high-fat diet-induced cognitive decline, the effects being sex- and apolipoprotein E isoform-dependent. Kundu 2022
A Humulus lupulus extract and its active constituent xanthohumol improved memory impairment induced by iron overload in a mouse model by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes and remarkably reducing lipid peroxidation in the hippocampus via activation of AKT/GSK3β and Nrf2/NQO1 molecular pathways. Xiao-Lei 2022
Xanthohumol suppressed the viability and induced apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer cells, in vitro and in mouse xenografts, via upregulation of p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) expression. Li 2022
Xanthohumol, administered for 90 days via gavage, ameliorated cognitive dysfunction with concomitant changes in gut microbiota composition in mice. Liu 2022
An extract of hops administered for 3 months reduced bone loss induced by iron overload, by altering bone metabolism and significantly promoting osteoblast proliferation in a mouse model of osteoporosis. Sun 2022
Co-administration of hop extracts with bisphenol A during adolescence ameliorated elevated anxiety and depressive-like behaviors, associated with the bisphenol A exposure, in rats during adulthood. Morin 2021
Xanthohumol and its combination with phenethyl isothiocyanate decreased Nrf2 activation in pancreatic cancer cells, suppressing the tumor growth in mouse xenografts. Cykowiak 2021
Xanthohumol suppressed SARS-CoV-2 replication and the associated pulmonary inflammation, associated with inhibition of diacylglycerol acyltransferase, in a hamster model. Yuan 2021
Xanthohumol phenethyl isothiocyanate induced apoptosis in cultured hepatocytes and reduced tumor burden in hepatocellular carcinoma xenograft-carrying mice. Cykowiak 2021
Xanthohumol attenuated hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia and protected against nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in type 2 diabetic rats by upregulating NRF2 and diminishing receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and NF-κB expression. Wang 2021
A study showed xanthohumol decreasing plasma insulin concentrations and improving insulin resistance in high-fat diet-fed mice, but not in germ-free mice, highlighting the role of the intestinal microbiota in the effects. Logan 2021
Pre-treatment with xanthohumol (10-20 mg/kg) attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced depressive-like behavior and neuorinflammation in mice. Rahman 2021
Purified beta-acids from hops showed highly significant antimicrobial effects against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a porcine infected wound model. Sleha 2021
Xanthohumol ameliorated high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis in liver farnesoid X receptor-deficient mice, with the effect being stronger in male animals, via induction of bile acid detoxification pathways. Paraiso 2021
Xanthohumol and hop (Humulus lupulus) beta acids showed antimicrobial activity against Clostridioides difficile, as well as ameliorated inflammation in the large intestine, in rats. Sleha 2021
Xanthohumol, orally administered at 50 mg/kg/d for 4 weeks, decreased blood glucose and increased body weight, while significantly increased freezing time in a fear memory test, in diabetic rats, as well as increased synaptic plasticity and dendritic spine density and reduced oxidative stress markers in the hippocampus. Ma 2021
Administration for 2 months of xanthohumol significantly ameliorated memory impairment in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease, an effect associated with increased SOD, reduced interleukin-6 and interleukin-1β in serum and the hippocampus, and significantly reduced Aβ deposition in the hippocampus. Sun 2021
Topical application of a gel with a carbon dioxide extract of hops (Humulus lupulus) promoted wound healing by stimulating proliferative activity of the epidermis and necrotic tissue cleansing, along with bactericidal and antimycotic effects, in a rat model of severe and very severe acne vulgaris which may lead to development of deep infected wounds. Moiseienko 2021
Xanthohumol in subtoxic doses showed cytotoxic effects on human melanoma cells in vitro and significantly suppressed melanoma hepatic metastasis in a mouse model. Seitz 2021
Supplementation with xanthohumol at 0.5 mg/mL of the diet extended the mean life span of Drosophila melanogaster fruit flies by 14.89%, as well as a significantly improved locomotor activity and ameliorated stress. Wongchum 2021
Seven days of feeding of iso-α-acids or isohumulones from hop extract prevented acetaldehyde-induced liver injury in mice through suppression of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels via modulation of Nrf2-mediated gene expression. Takase 2021
A flavonoid-rich extract from hops (Humulus lupulus) attenuated visceral adiposity and hepatic accumulation of triglycerides in the ovariectomized rat model of estrogen decline. Hamm 2019
Xanthohumol (10-50 mg/kg), administered intraperitoneally, ameliorated seizures, increase in glutamate levels, and CA3 neuron death induced by kainic acid in a rat model of glutamate-related nervous system diseases. Wang 2019
Xanthohumol alleviated clinical signs, lung pathology, and inflammatory responses in lung tissues of pigs infected by highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. Liu 2019
Xanthohumol administration downregulated iNOS and COX-2 mRNA expressions and promoted cell apoptosis in colorectal cancer model in rats. Liu 2019
Matured hop bitter acids (MHBAs) prevented obesity and improved memory deficits in a mouse model. Short-term administration of MHBAs improved episodic and spatial reference memory in obese mice. Ayabe 2019
Matured hop bitter acids, the bitter compounds in beer, improved spatial working memory and object recognition in mouse models, with the involvement of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Fukuda 2019
Isoxanthohumol, a flavonoid found in hops and beer, inhibited lung metastasis of melanoma cells in vivo. Krajnovic 2019
Humulus lupulus extract (1 g/kg daily for 12 weeks) increased estradiol levels and improved bone structure and density in ovariectomy-induced mouse model of osteoporosis. Xia 2019
Xanthohumol suppressed the growth of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells in vitro and in patient-derived xenografts in vivo. Liu 2019
A xanthohumol-fortified beer, administered for 4 weeks, attenuated pulmonary vascular remodeling and improved right ventricle function in a rat model of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Silva 2019
Hop-derived iso-a-acids (found in beer) improved performance in high-order cognitive function tests, in mice. Ayabe 2019
A hydroalcoholic extract of Humulus lupulus (50-400 mg/kg/d, for 7 weeks, via gavage) decreased sperm counts and motility, and testosterone and luteinizing hormone levels, while increasing estrogen (E2) levels, in male rats. Karbalaei 2019
Short-term intake of iso-a-acids, the hop compounds found in beer, suppressed inflammation in the hippocampus and improved memory impairment even after disease onset in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Ano 2019
Xanthohumol showed inhibitory activity against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in a screening test of 386 natural products. Liu 2019
Hop-derived iso-α-acids improved memory, alleviated microglial inflammation, reduced glutamate and amyloid β1-42 levels, and increased those of dopamine, in a mouse model of aging. Ano 2019
Matured hop bitter acids ameliorated depression-like behavior induced by lipopolysaccharide, by suppressing inflammatory cytokine production in the brain and increasing norepinephrine secretion, in an animal model. Fukuda 2019
Iso-α-acids, hop-derived bitter compounds in beer, improved memory function via vagus nerve activation and increases in the dopamine levels in the hippocampus, in mice. Ano 2019
Addition of hop pellets to the feed favorably influenced the fatty acid profile of the milk from dairy cows. Focant 2018
Consumption of hop-derived iso-α-acids suppressed microglial inflammation in the frontal cortex of mice with rTg4510 tauopathy. Ano 2018
Matured hop bitter acids increased enteroendocrine production of cholecystokinin, which induced the activity of sympathetic nerves innervating the brown adipose tissue, in vitro and in vivo. Yamazaki 2018
Oral administration of iso-α-acids for 7 days increased the expression of transthyretin, a known amyloid β protein scavenger, by 58.9-fold in the brains of mice. Fukuda 2018
Hops-derived bitter taste receptor ligand isohumulone restored the reproductive function and ameliorated endocrine and metabolic disturbances associated with polycystic ovary syndrome, in a mouse model. Wu 2018
Matured hop bitter acids improved spatial working and episodic memory in scopolamine-induced model of amnesia, by increasing norepinephrine release from the hippocampus, in mice. Ayabe 2018
Iso-alpha acids from hops (Humulus lupulus) attenuated body weight gain, glucose intolerance, and hepatic steatosis induced by a Western-type diet in a mouse model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Mahli 2018
Hop-derived 6- and 8-prenylnaringenin strongly suppressed visceral pain in mice, by blocking T-type calcium channels in the central nervous system and primary afferent neurons. Sekiguchi 2018
Xanthohumol (administered i.p. for 3 consecutive days) attenuated the nephrotoxicity of cisplatin in an animal model. Li 2018
Hops, as well as nonalcoholic beer, mitigated negative effects of aluminum nitrate on antioxidant and inflammatory statuses, and improved swimming and behavioral function, in rats. Merino 2018
A combination of soy isoflavones and hop prenylflavanones (30-300 mg/kg orally for 8 weeks) suppressed estrogen deficiency-related bone loss (as shown by molecular markers) and metabolic dysfunction in ovariectomized rats fed a high-fat diet. Noh 2018
Valerian/Cascade (hops) mixture increased the non-rapid eye movement sleep time by 53%, compared with the control, while REM sleeping time decreased by 33%, resulting in increase of sleep duration, in rodents. Choi 2018
A hop extract (Lifenol®; 30-100 mg/kg, orally, for 12 weeks) dose-dependently ameliorated dyslipidemia, osteoporosis, and hot flushes, induced by estrogen depletion, in ovariectomized rats. Ban 2018
Daily intake of iso-α-acids, hop-derived bitter compounds in beer, attenuated obesity-associated cognitive decline in high-fat diet-fed mice. Ayabe 2018
Xanthohumol (1-5 mg/kg/day for one month) ameliorated ageing-associated increases in the expression of liver enzymes related to oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis, in mice. Fernández-García 2018
Xanthohumol suppressed breast cancer cell viability in vitro and in a mouse model. Sun 2018
Xanthohumol with or without praziquantel (an anthelminthic drug) ameliorated DNA damage, malignant transformation of bile duct cells (cholangiocarcinogenesis), and fibrosis, induced by liver fluke (Opisthorchis viverrini) infection, in hamsters. Jamnongkan 2018
Xanthohumol improved glucose tolerance and ameliorated spatial learning and memory deficits in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Miranda 2018
Xanthohumol (intraperitoneally injected) protected photoreceptor cells, retinal function, and visual acuity, in mice, following toxic light exposure. Henneman 2018
An iso-α-acid-rich extract from hops (H. lupulus; ∼30% iso-α-acids, 0.75 mg/kg body weight) attenuated acute alcohol-induced liver steatosis in mice. Hege 2018
Xanthohumol prevented dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis, in mice, presumably via direct binding-induced inhibition of IKKβ. Cho 2017
Xanthohumol reduced cholangiocarcinoma tumor growth in mouse xenograft models, as well as reduced cellular proliferation, colony formation, and induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in cholangiocarcinoma cells in vitro. Walden 2017
Xanthohumol slowed down tumor growth, inhibited the expression of antitumor proliferation protein Ki-67 and breast cancer-specific marker cancer antigen 15-3, and upregulated Th1 cytokines, while downregulating Th2 cytokine, in a breast cancer mouse model. Zhang 2017
Xanthohumol was found to inhibit angiogenesis in pancreatic cancer models in vitro and in vivo, suppressing the expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and interleukin-8 in vitro, and reducing the volume of subcutaneous xenograft tumors in vivo. Saito 2017
A standardized hops extract (H. lupulus; 0.42% 8-prenylnaringenin; for 140 days, by diet) showed no estrogenic activity in the uterus and liver of normal and ovariectomized rats treated with a carcinogen, and completely suppressed breast tumors induced by the carcinogen. Keiler 2017
Xanthohumol (1-5 mg/kg/day for 30 days) attenuated age-related inflammatory and apoptotic brain damage and recovered synaptic marker expression, in mouse models of aging. Rancán 2017
The beneficial effects of hops (Humulus lupulus) on cattle are reviewed, including the potential use of the plant as a growth promoter. Flythe 2017
A standardized Humulus lupulus ethanol extract (60 mg/kg body weight/d for 8 weeks) partially prevented ovariectomy-induced bone loss, without induction of adverse effects in the uterus, in rats. Keiler 2017
Xanthohumol-enriched (10 mg/L) stout beer consumption corrected hepatic fibrosis and ameliorated changes in hepatic metabolism induced by type 1 diabetes in rats. Lima-Fontes 2017
Xanthohumol was shown to up-regulate high-density lipoprotein (HDL) maturation, production of bile acids, and excretion of cholesterol to feces, in a hamster model. Hirata 2017
Xanthohumol and 8-prenylnaringenin independently ameliorated diabetic-related metabolic dysfunctions, such as body weight gain, increased glycemia, triglyceride, cholesterol and alkaline phosphatase levels, and improved insulin sensitivity in high-fat diet-fed mice. Costa 2017
Addition of xanthohumol (~91.9%), purified from a hop extract, to the diet inhibited visceral fat gain by lowering hepatic fatty acid synthesis, promoting fatty acid β-oxidation and fecal excretion, and decreased plasma leptin levels, in mice. Takahashi 2017
Xanthohumol inhibited platelet-derived growth factor-triggered vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration in vitro, and suppressed neointima formation in a mouse model. Liu 2017
Total flavonoids obtained from the residue of supercritical-CO2 Humulus lupulus extract (orally for 7 days) potently inhibited xanthine oxidase, decreased serum uric acid levels, and reduced potassium oxonate-induced renal damage in mice, suggesting benefits for gout. Li 2017
Xanthohumol alleviated acute lung injury, reducing lung W/D ratio and protein levels, histopathological changes, oxidative stress, and inflammation (neutrophil infiltration, secretion of cytokines, inflammasome and NF-κB pathways activation), in a Nrf2-dependent manner, in mice. Lv 2017
A combination of valerian and Cascade hops decreased activity and increased sleeping times in Drosophila melanogaster flies, increasing mRNA expression of GABA and serotonin receptors, with synergistic binding activity on the GABA receptors. Choi 2017
The deterrent activity of hop flavonoids and their derivatives against grain feeding beetles was studied. Jackowski 2017
Xanthohumol was found to prevent both venous and arterial thrombosis, without increasing bleeding risk, in several animal models. Xin 2017
3'-Geranylchalconaringenin, found in hops and beer, competitively and irreversibly inhibited α-glucosidase (IC50, 1.08 μM; 50-fold more active than acarbose) in vitro; in a mouse model of diabetes, decreased postprandial blood glucose and serum total cholesterol and triglycerides levels. Sun 2017
Iso-α-acids, hop-derived bitter compounds in beer, reduced the levels of amyloid β (by 21%) and the inflammation markers IL-1β and MIP-1α in the cerebral cortex, inducing an anti-inflammatory microglia phenotype, in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Ano 2017
Xanthohumol and its derivatives mitigate metabolic syndrome and associated cognitive impairments in obese C57BL/6J mice. [No abstract] Stevens 2016
Consumption of xanthohumol reduced kidney and heart neovascularization, VEGFR-2 expression and activity, VEGF-A expression, while reducing the expression of VEGF-B, VEGFR-1 and neuropilin-1, in diabetic mice. 8-Prenylnaringenin had similar effects. Costa 2016
Hops (Humulus lupulus) in beer attenuated alcohol-induced hepatic fat accumulation and reduced molecular markers of hepatosteatosis, in mice. Landmann 2016
Addition of the hop flavonoid 8-prenylnaringenin to the diet prevented muscle atrophy induced by immobilization in mice. The compound activated the PI3K/Akt/P70S6K1 pathway at physiologic concentrations in vitro. Mukai 2016
Supplementation of the diet with 1% spent hops did not affect the expression of hepatic enzymes linked to inflammation, the antioxidant and cytoprotective systems, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and detoxification, in healthy piglets. Gessner 2016
8-Prenylnaringenin, administered subcutaneously (1.77 mg/kg daily for 10 weeks, considered a cancer-safe dose), in conjunction with whole-body vibration therapy did not improve bone structure or biomechanical properties, in a rat model of osteopenia. Hoffmann 2016
Supplementation with xanthohumol (60 mg/kg/day for 12 weeks) ameliorated body weight gain, and decreased plasma LDL-cholesterol, IL-6, insulin, and leptin levels by 80%, 78%, 42%, and 41%, respectively, in high-fat diet-fed mice. Miranda 2016
Xanthohumol (20-50 µM) induced apoptosis in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) cells in vitro, partially via inhibition of IL-6-induced STAT3 activation, and, administered via the drinking water, reduced CCA tumor growth in nude mice, with no visible toxicity. Dokduang 2016
Xanthohumol inhibited glutamate release in rat hippocampal neurons by GABAA-receptor-dependent decrease in the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentrations, while having no effect on 4-aminopyridine-mediated depolarization, and reduced the frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents. Chang 2016
Xanthohumol inhibited osteoclast differentiation and osteoclast formation at the early stage in vitro, and suppressed bone loss and resorption by suppressing osteoclast activity in ovariectomized and RANKL-injected mice. Li 2015
Xanthohumol inhibited the growth, by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, of cultured prostate cancer cells and their subcutaneous xenograft tumors. Jiang 2015
Isoxanthohumol was among the strongest deterrents of insect feeding activity. Stompor 2015
Matured hop bittering components reduced body weight gain, epididymal white adipose tissue weight, and plasma non-esterified free fatty acid levels in mice with diet-induced obesity. Morimoto-Kobayashi 2015
Addition of spent hops to the diet had no effect on the concentrations of Fe, Zn and Cu in the liver of piglets. Fiesel 2015
Tetra- and hexahydro isoalpha acids from hops reduced cell proliferation and viability of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro and reduced the tumor numbers in a chemically induced animal model of hepatocellular carcinoma. Stärkel 2015
Isoxanthohumol, a compound from hops, increased stress resistance in the Caenorhabditis elegans nematode, via activation of the transcription factor DAF-16. Büchter 2015
Addition of hop cones to dairy cow ration inhibited total gas production and acetic, butyric, and total short-chain fatty acids production in an in vitro rumen simulation experiment. Lavrenčič 2015
8-Prenylnaringenin showed relatively high binding affinity for both types of estrogen receptors, with a preference for estrogen receptor-α, and stimulated proliferation of epithelial cells in the rat mammary gland. Helle 2014
8-Prenylnaringenin ameliorates oral mucositis, induced by irradiation, in mice. De Ryck 2014
8-Prenylnaringenin showed a panicolytic effect in rats. Bagatin 2014
Lupulone, a β-acid from hops, suppressed the growth of equine fecal fructan-fermenting bacteria. Harlow 2014
Feeding spent hops to pigs increased gain:feed ratio, possibly via the effects on the intestinal microbiota and decrease in the intestinal inflammation. Fiesel 2014
Xanthohumol, a compound from hops, improved cognitive flexibility in young but not in old mice. Zamzow 2014
Addition of freshly ground hops decreases the degradability of dry matter and crude protein in the rumen of dairy cows. Lavrenčič 2014
A xanthohumol-rich hop extract ameliorated the increase in body weight, liver weight, and triacylglycerol levels in the plasma and liver of obese rats fed a high-fat diet. Yui 2014
A humulus pollen allergy DNA vaccine mediates immune protection, in mice. [Article in Chinese] Lu 2014
Hop extract decreased amyloid-β deposition in the brains of mice and prevented memory impairment in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Sasaoka 2014
8-prenylnaringenin inhibited bone resorption activity of osteoclasts by inducing osteoclast apoptosis and inhibiting the gene expression and enzyme activity of TRAP and CTSK, thus restraining bone marrow cells to osteoclast differentiation, in rabbits. [Article in Chinese] Lü 2013
Xanthohumol inhibited the oxidative stress and proinflammatory response, associated with ischemia/reperfusion-induced liver injury, in mice. Dorn 2013
Xanthohumol dose-dependently decreased body weight and plasma glucose levels in a rodent model of obesity, but did not have an effect on plasma cholesterol, insulin, triglycerides, an inflammation marker MCP-1, and food intake levels. Legette 2013
A hop extract inhibited the development of obesity and improved glucose tolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet. Sumiyoshi 2013
META060, a reduced iso-α acid derived from an extract of hops, prevented weight gain in high fat diet-fed mice and improved glucose tolerance similarly to rosiglitazone. Vroegrijk 2013
Xanthohumol inhibited phosphorylation of the Stat5b protein and consequently blocked the development of lymphoma in a mouse model susceptible to the lymphoma disease. Chen 2013
A hop extract, alone and in combination with an ethanolic extract of Yucca schidigera and monensin, altered ruminal microbial composition and fermentation of a barley-based diet in vitro. Narvaez 2013
Polyphenol-containing hop pomace reduced body weight, white adipose tissue weight, fasting blood glucose, hepatic fatty acid metabolism, plasma inflammation, and glucose metabolism markers in an animal model of type 2 diabetes. Yui 2013
Xanthohumol, a medicinal compound from hops, decreased plasma cholesterol and inflammation marker levels and augmented fatty acid metabolism in the liver, in an animal model of atherosclerosis (apolipoprotein E-deficient mice fed a "western" diet). Doddapattar 2013
Xanthohumol, a major medicinal compound from hops, reduced liver damage and oxidative stress, but did not significantly reduce hepatitis C virus expression in the liver tissue, in an animal model of hepatitis C. Yang 2013
Xanthohumol and tetrahydroxanthohumol concentration-dependently affect cellular respiration and glutathione synthesis, which has potential implications for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related conditions. Kirkwood 2013
Xanthohumol alone does not significantly influence the GABAA receptor but may interact with benzodiazepine drugs as its partial agonist or antagonist, or via interaction(s) with other neurotransmitter system(s) in the CNS. Ceremuga 2013
Xanthohumol consumption decreased inflammation and improved wound healing in diabetic rats. Costa 2013
A high-phenolics extract of hops inhibited oxidative DNA damage and genotoxic properties of cyclophosphamide, in mice. Wang 2013
Xanthohumol-supplemented beer reduced inflammation and angiogenesis in a wound-healing model in rats. Negrão 2012
Hops extracts inhibited larval growth rate, larval weight, and adult beetles of the Colorado potato beetle. Gökçe 2012
Xanthohumol inhibited inflammation and the expression of profibrogenic genes in the livers of mice exposed to carbon tetrachloride. Dorn 2012
Treatment with xanthohumol (0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg; intraperitoneally) prior to middle cerebral artery occlusion attenuated focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Yen 2012
Xanthohumol reduces methane production during ruminal fermentation. Zmora 2012
Xanthohumol inhibited the development and invasiveness of acute lymphocytic leukemia in mice and prolonged the life of the animals. In vitro, the compound also reversed the resistance of the leukemic cells to cytotoxic drugs. Benelli 2012
Applications of hop beta acids eradicated the infestation of bee hives by varroa destructor, a parasitic mite of the honey bee, without affecting bee mortality. Degrandi-Hoffman 2012
An extract of hops, administered at the dose of 2 mg, but not at 1 or 11 mg, reduced nocturnal activity in the common quail, while preserving the circadian activity/rest rhythm. Franco 2012
Xanthohumol, a prenyl flavonoid from hop, prevents carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury in rats via the antioxidant enzymes upregulation, inhibition of lipid peroxidation, and direct antioxidant effects. Pinto 2012
Xanthohumol inhibited mouse lymphoma cells and proliferation of splenic T cells induced by IL-2 via downregulation of the Jak/STAT, Erk1/2 signaling pathways, and c-Myc, c-Fos, NFκB and cyclin D1 cellular proliferation-related proteins. Liu 2012
Low micromolar doses of xanthohumol reduced proliferation of androgen-resistant prostate cancer cells, and delayed the progression of prostate adenocarcinoma in mice in vivo. Venè 2012
8-Prenylnaringenin prevented muscle atrophy in denervated mice. Mukai 2012
Xanthohumol decreased cholesterol accumulation and increased HDL-C cholesterol in cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP)-transgenic mice. Hirata 2012
A combination of a rho iso-alpha acids-rich extract of hops and proanthocyanidins-rich extracts of Acacia nilotica in the ratio of 5:1 reduced insulin levels and non-fasting glucose in db/db diabetic mice. Tripp 2012
Xanthohumol reduced the size of endometriotic lesions in mice. Rudzitis-Auth 2012
Tetrahydro iso-alpha acids (META060) reduced body weight gain, fat mass, plasma levels of inflammation, gut permeability, glucose intolerance, and normalized insulin sensitivity markers. Everard 2012
Addition of hops (Cascade, Millenium, and Teamaker varieties) reduced total gas, methane, the acetate:propionate ratio, and differentially affected various bacterial populations and fermentation in an artificial rumen system. Narvaez 2012
A hop extract increased sexual motivation in hormone-primed female rats. Di Viesti 2011
The addition of lupulone, a β-acid from hops, to chicken feed positively affected the microbiota composition in the chicken gut. Tillman 2011
Hop diet was compared with the typical hay diet in sheep. Al-Mamun 2011
An ethanolic extract of hops inhibited the development of atopic dermatitis in mice, possibly via inhibition of nerve growth factor-induced neuritic outgrowth. [Article in Japanese] Takano 2011
Xanthohumol inhibited hepatic pro-inflammatory and fibrogenetic markers in a murine model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Dorn 2010
Xanthohumol and its derivatives suppressed chronic contact dermatitis, inhibited IL-12 production and NF-kappaB binding activity in the nucleus. Cho 2010
A hop extract had the highest growth-inhibitory effect on Paenibacillus larvae, the causal agent of American Foulbrood Disease of honey bees, among the plant extracts tested, with no toxicity against adult honee bees at the concentrations tested. Flesar 2010
A hop extract increased the propionate to acetate ratio in the metabolites of rumen bacteria and affected the growth of selected species. Flythe 2010
Oral xanthohumol treatment of rats affected the expression of genes related to the metabolism of the T4 thyroid hormone, drugs, and xenobiotics, in the liver. Radović 2010
In a preliminary in vitro screening, 71% of commercial hops products possessed potential antidiabetic activity, and rho-isoalpha acids reduced nonfasting glucose in a mouse model of diabetes in a subsequent assay. Babish 2010
Xanthohumol prevents DNA damage and preneoplastic lesion formation in animals fed amino-3-methyl-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline. Ferk 2010
Rho iso-alpha acids from hops ameliorated joint damage in a mouse model of collagen-induced arthritis. Konda 2009
Hop addition to the diet of sheep did not significantly affect the plasma acetate metabolism. Al-Mamun 2009
Hops inhibited amino acids degradation and ammonia production by hyper ammonia-producing ruminal bacteria. Flythe 2009
Hop extract did not affect the sexual behavior of sexually potent rats but reduced the percentage of mounting and ejaculating animals in the naïve animal group offering anaphrodisiac effect. Zanoli 2009
Hop bitter acids blocked TNFα-induced production of IL-6, inhibited transactivation of the pro-inflammatory nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), activator protein-1 (AP-1), and cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB), and inhibited acute local inflammation in vivo. Van Cleemput 2009
Lupulone, a bitter acid of hop cones, inhibited angiogenesis by human umbilical vein endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo. Siegel 2008
8-Prenylnaringenin decreased body weight, increased uterus weight, increased serum GH, decreased serum IGF-1 levels, showed an estrogenic activity regarding cholesterol and LDL regulation but had no effect on HDL concentrations (high dose), or augmented HDL levels (low dose), in rats. Böttner 2008
8-Prenylnaringenin improved bone mineral density and biomechanical properties in rats, similarly to estradiol, and significantly, compared to resveratrol or genistein. Sehmisch 2008
8-Prenylnaringenin showed uterotrophic effects in rats. Zierau 2008
An aqueous hop extract induced relaxation in thoracic arterial rings of male and female, but not ovariectomized, rats. Figard 2008
Xanthohumol inhibited genotoxic effects of carcinogens in rat liver tissue. Plazar 2008
Lupulone inhibited the growth of a pathogenic bacterial species Clostridium perfringens in the chicken intestinal tract jejunum and caecum. Siragusa 2008
Xanthohumol inhibits breast cancer development and host's pro-inflammatory response, in mice. Monteiro 2008
A hop water extract ameliorated the development of dermatitis in a mouse model. Segawa 2008
8-Prenylnaringenin, but not a hops extract, had a clear dose-response effect on the uterus size in rats. Overk 2008
Hops induced a hypothermic effect in mice and study suggested that the sleep-inducing--effects of hops extract are possibly mediated through activation of melatonin receptors. Butterweck 2007
Isohumulones reduced renal damage in salt-sensitive hypertensive rats fed a high-salt diet. Namikoshi 2007
The addition of xanthohumol to chicken feed did not reduce the effects of Eimeria acervulina, E. maxima, or E. tenella infections on weight gain, feed conversion or gross lesions; however, pre-treatment of E. tenella and E. acervulina sporozoites with xanthohumol reduced disease scores. Allen 2007
A hop water extract inhibited the pro-inflammatory response and the increase in vascular permeability in two mouse models of allergy. Segawa 2007
Humulus lupulus-enriched diet does not improve the effects if isometric exercise on bone metabolism in rats. Figard 2007
The antiproliferative mechanisms of lupulones on a human metastatic colon carcinoma-derived cell line (SW620 cells) were evaluated and their chemopreventive effects in a model of colon carcinogenesis were assessed. Lamy 2007
It is suggested that the hypothermic--and therefore the sleep-inducing--effects of Humulus lupulus extract are possibly mediated through activation of melatonin receptors. Butterweck 2007
The in vivo and in vitro effects of hop (Humulus lupulus) beta-acids on central nervous system function were investigated in rats, and it was revealed that the fraction reduced central GABAergic neurotransmission. Zanoli 2007
8-Prenylnaringenin showed similar effects with estradiol in the reproductive organs and mammary glands of rats, though some differences in the mechanism of action were observed. Rimoldi 2006
Ethanolic and CO2 extracts from Humulus lupulus reduced the spontaneous locomotor activity, increased the ketamine-induced sleeping time and reduced body temperature, confirming a central sedating effect. Schiller 2006
8-Prenylnaringenin, administered in high doses, suppressed serum LH and FSH, stimulated serum prolactin levels, uterine weight, and progesterone receptor, insulin-like growth factor I and complement protein C3 mRNA transcripts; as well as had other effects, in rats. Christoffel 2006
The site of action of 8-prenylnaringenin, a potent phytoestrogen in hops (Humulus lupulus), in a rat model of menopausal hot flushes, in which the tail skin temperature is increased after oestrogen withdrawal induced by ovariectomy, was investigated. Bowe 2006
Study on the effects of hop extracts (Humulus lupulus) on histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells and human basophilic KU812 cells suggests it may be effective in the relief of symptoms of allergic rhinitis. Takubo 2006
An somerized hop extract, containing mainly isohumulones and used in beer making, reduced body weight gain and plasma triacylglycerol levels, and inhibited pancreatic lipase activity, in high-fat diet-fed mice. Yajima 2005
An isomerized hop extract, containing mainly isohumulones, increased plasma HDL-cholesterol, reduced liver cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels, and increased liver weight, while decreasing body weight, in mice on a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet. Miura 2005
An isomerized hop extract, primarily containing isohumulones, increased liver weight and reduced plasma triglyceride and free fatty acid levels, by upregulating the expression of a battery of hepatic genes involved in hepatic fatty acid oxidation, and activating PPARalpha, in mice. Shimura 2005
Since the prenylated flavonoid xanthohumol (XN) can be converted to isoxanthohumol through acid-catalyzed cyclization in the stomach, XN might contribute to the in vivo levels of estrogenic 8-PN following consumption of hops extracts. Nikolic 2005
It is suggested that the increase in gastric juice volume induced by intraorally administered hops could be mediated by the cholinergic nervous system of a rat pylorus-ligated model. Kurasawa 2005
Xanthohumol did not appear to have a significant effect on rat intestinal microbiota. Hanske 2005
An isomerized hop extract, and an extra-hopped beer reduced the number of aberrant crypt foci in the colon of rats, compared with a non-hopped beer (vs. the extra-hopped beer). Nozawa 2005
Investigation of the effects of Humulus lupulus CO2 extract and its fraction containing alpha-acids on the central nervous system of rats showed enhanced pentobarbital effect and antidepressant property which are attributed to alpha-acids. Zanoli 2005
8-Prenylnaringenin completely protected rats from ovariectomy-induced bone loss, while exhibiting minimal, compared with estradiol, trophic effects on the uterus and endometrium; and showed pronounced estrogenic activity in the prostate in mice. Hümpel 2005
A single dose of 8-prenylnaringenin, present in hops, induced the proliferation of the uterine and vaginal epithelium, as well as the increase in uterine wet weight, and down-regulated the uterine estrogen receptor-alpha and clusterin gene expressions, in ovariectomized rats. Diel 2004
The constituent profile and estrogenic activity of a hop-based dietary supplement were tested. The supplement was found to be only weakly active in mice, even after administration of doses with up to 250 times higher content of 8-prenylnaringenin than in the doses recommended for women. Coldham 2001
Treatment with 8-isopentenylnaringenin (another name for 8-prenylnaringenin, a phytoestrogen from hops) completely suppressed ovariectomy-induced decreases in bone mineral density and uterine weight, and increase in urinary excretion of bone resorption markers, in rats. Miyamoto 1998
Colupulone, a constituent of hops, and an olefin formed from lupulones when hops are exposed to atmospheric hydroxyl radicals induced P4503A in mice. Mannering 1996
Humulon inhibits tumor promotion by TPA at 1 mg/mouse and inhibits arachidonic acid induced inflammation Yasukawa 1995
Neural responses to the bitterness of iso-alpha-acids (bitter compounds from hops) were studied in mice. Tanimura 1994
Diet with 1/3% colupulone increased cytochrome P450IIB and P450IIIA mRNA levels without altering activation of aflatoxin B1 or benzo[a]pyrene. Shipp 1994
Different hop extracts, containing either primarily iso-alpha acids (e.g., isohumulone) or nonisomerized alpha-acids (e.g., humulone), had different bitterness perception profiles in mice. Whitney 1994
Serum glucose levels were lowered by colupulone in nondiabetic Swiss-Webster mice but unaffected in nondiabetic C57B1/KSJ+m/+m mice, and elevated in diabetic C57B1/KSJ-db/db mice. Mannering 1994
A hop compound colupulone induced cytochrome P450 3A and 2B in mice. Mannering 1992
28 days treatment with hops at 6.25% of diet and/or as tea in place of drinking water did not affect glucose parameters in normal nor streptotocin diabetic mice (plasma glucose, insulin, glycated haemoglobin) Swanston-Flatt 1989
Sedative effect of hops may be explained by its content of 2-methyl-3-butene-2-ol, which produces narcosis for about 8 h when given to mice i.p. (0.80 g/kg) Hansel 1980
History of Record
November 1999
MAJOR REVISION BY: Michael C. Tims, PhD. candidate
June 2001
March 2023