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Scientific Name:
Humulus lupulus
Family Name:
Common Name:
hop, hops
Evidence of Activity
Analytical Chemistry
Hop (Humulus lupulus) storage at anaeronic conditions and at 4 °C provided the best protection for alpha- and beta-acids, with losses of 10-35% after 2 years, compared to 63-99% under aerobic conditions and at room temperature. Rutnik 2023
A study investigated the influence of pressure and temperature on the extraction kinetics of essential oil components (β-myrcene, α-humulene, β-caryophyllene, 2-methylbutyl isobutyrate, undecanone, linalool, and α-pinene) from hop (Humulus lupulus) pellets using supercritical CO2. Pannusch 2023
A study found strong correlation between the polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of phytoestrogen-containing plants, including hops. Klarić 2022
Analysis of Norwegian medicinal and aromatic plant species, including hops, maral root, mint, oregano, purslane, rosemary, roseroot, sweet wormwood, yarrow, identified ethanolic hop (Humulus lupulus) extracts among the best sources of antioxidants, presenting previously unreported 3-O-glucosides of kaempferol and quercetin. Slimestad 2022
LC-MS profiling combined with hierarchical cluster analysis allowed for the discrimination of hop (Humulus lupulus) cultivars, with 9 compounds showing the highest classification power, among which 5 were known hops bitter acids. Ikhalaynen 2022
Hops stored at regular room conditions showed the greatest losses in essential oil content, compared to those stored at 4 °C and anaerobically, pellets showing lower oxygen resistance compared to cones, which were more sensitive to high temperatures, with hop form and variety being other important factors. Rutnik 2022
A study evaluated the cytotoxic activity of the essential oils and hydrolates, obtained from Italian hemp (Cannabis sativa cv. Kompolti) and Humulus lupulus cv. Chinook, against human leukemia (HL60), neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y), breast adenocarcinoma (MDA, MCF7), and normal breast epithelium (MCF10A) cell lines. Ovidi 2022
An article reviews the published analytical methods for the separation of hop bitter acids employing liquid medium, such as liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. Duarte 2022
A study utilized machine learning to accelerate potential discovery of bioactive compounds from an extract of hops (Humulus lupulus), based on a bioassay measuring nitric oxide formation, resulting in the identification of xanthohumol among other prenylated flavonoids and humulones as the top bioactive constituents. Brown 2022
A study characterized 14 wild hop (H. lupulus) accessions obtained in Northern and Central Italy for the content of α- and β-acids, polyphenols, flavonoids, and the anti-radical power, finding them potentially suitable for use as aroma hops and for herbal and pharmaceutical purposes. Ghiselli 2022
A study utilized a quadrupole/linear ion trap hybrid mass spectrometer for the determination of conjugated phenolic compounds in food matrices, including Humulus lupulus. Oliva 2022
A study determined the content of xanthohumol, phenolic compounds, and flavonoids, radical scavenging activity, and volatile compounds in Lithuanian hop varieties. Stanius 2022
Condensed tannins from hops, containing (epi)catechin and (epi)gallocatechin as subunits, exhibited copper ion chelating and tyrosinase inhibitory activities. Liu 2022
A report of a novel dry hopping method includes the health and safety assessment of the resulting β-myrcene concentrations in Indian Pale Ale beer style. Salamon 2022
A study reports on the development of a QuEChERS method for the quantitative analysis of xanthohumol and bitter acids in hops, consistent with other methods, but less time consuming, cheaper, and more eco-friendly. Marques 2022
A study analyzed the occurrence of zoocide (insecticide and miticide) residues in hops collected in the Czech Republic, reporting the presence of at least one of the active substances in 119 out of 120 samples, with spirotetramat and/or its metabolites were found in 94.2% of the samples at levels ranging from 0.02 to 1.08 mg/kg. Dušek 2022
A study characterized the variation in the phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of extracts from various cultivars of hops, depending on the extraction solvent used and cultivation region. Lyu 2022
An article summarizes the biotransformation of monoterpenoids from hops in beer due to enzymatic activity of yeast and bacteria. Jiang 2021
A study found no statistically significant differences in the content of xanthohumol, isoxanthohumol, and 8-prenylnaringenin between organic and conventionally produced hops and beer. Golubović 2021
A study characterized the composition and optimal conditions for obtaining of a supercritical CO2 extract of the Humulus lupulus variety 'Ella'. Nagybákay 2021
Comparative study of greenhouse-grown southwestern American wild Humulus neomexicanus (A. Nelson and Cockerell) Rydb. and a group of commercial hop cultivars found consistently higher levels of α acids, bitter acids, and prenylflavonoids (xanthohumol, desmethylxanthohumol) in the former, as compared to the cultivars. Morcol 2021
Aging decreased the polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of dark dry hopped beers with high xanthohumol content, while polyphenol content increased during hopping and fermentation. Paszkot 2021
Application of pulsed electric field increased extraction rate of alpha acids from Humulus lupulus (hop) pellets by 20%. Volatiles (humulene and caryophyllene) extraction increased by 5.6% and 7.4%, respectively. Ntourtoglou 2020
A study found trace amounts of humulene diepoxide C-I and C-II in Chinook hops. Tan 2020
A study reports on the isolation and characterization of a polysaccharide (HLP50-1; molecular weight: 49.13 kDa) with osteogenic activities potentially useful for the treatment of oseoporosis, from Humulus lupulus female flowers. Chen 2020
Analysis of wild (Humulus lupulus ssp. lupoloides) populations of hops growing in the Maritimes region of eastern Canada revealed xanthogalenol and 4'-O-methyl xanthohumol as the chemotaxonomic indicators. McCallum 2019
A comparative study of hops (Humulus lupulus) and juniper berries (Juniper communis) found hops to have a higher phenolic content (23.11 ± 0.03 mg/g dw) and antioxidant activity, identifying chlorogenic acid as the predominant constituent (16.48 ± 0.03 mg/g dw) in hops. Tang 2019
An analytical study found that the bitter acids and prenylflavonoids in hops are only partially transferred to the final beer product, most of them remaining in the spent yeast fraction. Cortese 2019
An analytical study determined the levels of xanthohumol in hop flowers, dietary supplements, and beer. The levels in beer were specifically reported to be between 0.028 and 0.062 mg/L. Vázquez Loureiro 2019
An article presents an overview of analytical methods used for finished product analysis and quality control of beer. Anderson 2019
A novel methodology allowed characterization of polymeric proanthocyanidins in hops, including those with molecular weights up too 100 kDa in 'Saaz' hop, and up to 56 kDa in 'Magnum.' Gadon 2019
An analytical study found 41 aroma-active compounds, of which 38 were identified, in pellets of different hop (H. lupulus) varieties. Brendel 2019
An analysis of three H. lupulus cultivars (Magnum, Lubelski, and Marynka) found the highest levels of flavonols, phenolic acids, antioxidant, and antimicrobial (against Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis) activities in the 'Magnum' hops. Kobus-Cisowska 2019
Regional differences were found in the chemical profile of the 'Cascade' hops (Humulus lupulus) cultivated in Italy, Germany, USA, and Slovenia, with no correlation between the bitter acids and xanthohumol production, and rainfall, temperatures, or latitude. Rodolfi 2019
An article presents a method for the quantification of a-acids found in freshly harvested, unprocessed hops, using HPLC. Schindler 2019
A study characterized aroma compounds in beer and their effects on consumer liking. Gonzalez Viejo 2019
An alternative method is proposed for simultaneous separation of a and ß-acids homologs and isomers in hop (Humulus lupulus) using CD-MEKC with UV detection. Duarte 2019
Multi-metal fingerprinting was used to identify 22 varieties of hops (Humulus lupulus) and/or their geographic origins, as well as study potential relationships between the metals and functional ingredients. Liu 2019
Several novel sulfur-containing compounds, cysteine- and glutathione-conjugated precursors of 3-sulfanylpentan-1-ol, were discovered in six well-known varieties of hops at concentrations up to 18 mg per kg of dry matter. Chenot 2019
Concentrations of lupulones, bioactive components in Humulus lupulus, were evaluated in hop-based dietary supplements. Complete extraction of lupulones from raw hops was achieved with organic solvents including methanol and ethanol. Schulz 2019
An analytical study characterized xanthohumol cocrystals formed with the pharmaceutically acceptable coformers such as nicotinamide and caffeine. Budziak 2019
Experimental Humulus lupulus genotypes showed greater volatile chemical diversity compared to commercial cultivars. A total of 58 compounds of interest were identified. Yan 2019
Elemental analysis allowed for the discrimination of hop strobili from two different locations in Italy. Pepi 2019
Total essential oil content of Cascade hops and the intensity of the aroma that they contributed to beer increased over 5-6 weeks during harvest, while the concentrations of humulones did not change, suggesting that later harvested hops might be better for dry-hopping. Lafontaine 2019
A study of the extraction of α-acids and xanthohumol in dry-hopped beer found α-acid levels above 20 mg/L, with the maximum extraction efficiency obtained at 13.5 days. Machado 2019
Multi-elemental profiles in hops (H. lupulus) were determined, in order to assist with the geographical origin determination. Ocvirk 2019
8-Prenylnaringenin was predicted to have the pharmacological potential as a drug candidate for the treatment of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Monteiro 2018
Hop-derived aroma compounds in beer hopped with the 'Huell Melon' variety of hops were ethyl 2-methylpropanoate, methyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, propyl 2-methylbutanoate, myrcene, linalool, and geraniol. Neiens 2018
Geranic acid was identified as a unique flavor compound in a hop (H. lupulus) variety 'Sorachi Ace'. Sanekata 2018
Vibrations (simulating transportation), short-term temperature fluctuations (5-45 °C), and/or storage for 60 days at 30 °C had limited effects on iso-α-acids in beer. Paternoster 2018
The transfer of pestidices from hops to beer correlated with the n-octanol-water partition coefficients, thermostable pesticides (boscalid, dimethomorph, imidacloprid, etc.) comprising the most potential risk category. Dušek 2018
The "fate" of hop-derived volatile organic compounds during beer fermentation was investigated using proton transfer reaction-time of flight-mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS). Richter 2018
The fate of polysaccharides, which include those provided from hops, during the beer brewing process was investigated by a novel carbohydrate microarray technology. Fangel 2018
Formation of stereoisomers of xanthohumol (i.e. isoxanthohumol) and 8-prenylnaringenin was studied in beer, hop, and hop pellet samples by HPLC. Among other findings, it was found that conversion of xanthohumol to isoxanthohumol in wort during boiling is unlikely. Moriya 2018
50 German beers were classified in accordance with their chemical profiles, including the presence of such compounds as isoxanthohumol and iso-α-ad/n-humulone. Ristivojević 2018
Comprehensive analysis of bitterness-causing compounds in highly hopped beers suggested an alternative approach to predicting bitterness, based on the concentrations of isohumulones, humulinones (oxidized hop acids), and ethanol, Hahn 2018
Isotope ratio mass spectrometry was used to determine geographical, as well as botanical origin of hops (Humulus lupulus). Ocvirk 2018
Quantitative NMR was compared with HPLC-DAD for fingerprinting bioactive compounds (prenylflavonoids and bitter acids) in eight hop cultivars (Humulus lupulus). Bertelli 2018
Chinese hop varieties (Humulus lupulus) were distinguished using volatile fingerprinting by head space-solid phase micro-extraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combined with multivariate statistical analysis. Liu 2018
A method for the discrimination of 33 commercial hop varieties, using near- and mid-infrared spectroscopy, was developed. Machado 2018
Online comprehensive two dimensional liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was used to identify 83 compounds, including a novel quercetin derivative and six unknown bitter acids, in hops (Humulus lupulus). Sommella 2017
A novel formylated chalcone, 3'-formylxanthohumol, was isolated from an extract of Humulus lupulus cones, along with dehydrocycloxanthohumol and xanthohumol, the latter being the most potent in improving the viability of human endothelial cells. Zhang 2017
Fourteen new α-acid derivatives, a new chromone, and five known compounds were identified in the pistillate inflorescence of Humulus lupulus, and their structures elucidated. Li 2017
The acid-base profile of xanthohumol, important for improvement of its bioavailability, was established. Arczewska 2017
Cannabinoids were quantified in a surrogate hops matrix. Leghissa 2017
A novel two-dimensional gas chromatography (2GC×2GC) method was utilized for the analysis of essential oils from hop (H. lupulus). Yan 2017
Four extraction methods (headspace solid phase micro extraction, stir bar sorptive extraction, headspace sorptive extraction, and solvent assisted flavour evaporation) for analysis of volatile hop-derived aroma compounds in beer were compared. Richter 2017
The flavonoid profile of young shoots of wild Humulus lupulus (hop) plants, harvested from different locations in Northern Italy, was characterized. Maietti 2017
Perceived bitterness of beers hopped with three different hop varieties (Hersbrucker, East Kent Goldings, Zeus), and the effects of hop aroma on the bitterness evaluations, were assessed. Oladokun 2017
Essential oils from new Humulus lupulus genotypes were chemotyped, using GC×GC-Q-TOFMS. Yan 2017
Quantitation of 4-methyl-4-sulfanylpentan-2-one in 53 hop samples by a novel method revealed that the compound is abundant in the lupulin glands of the United States varieties Citra, Eureka, Simcoe, and Apollo, while absent from traditional German and English varieties. Reglitz 2017
Harvest time and year were found to affect the adipocyte differentiation-inhibitory and nitric oxide production-inhibitory activities of Saaz hop polyphenols, with the early harvested samples exhibiting higher polyphenol content and stronger anti-adipocyte differentiation effects. Inui 2017
Changes in the chemical profile of beer, including hop content (humulone), during the brewing process were characterized using electrospray-ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry. Vivian 2016
Antioxidant activity evaluation and determination of total phenols and flavonoids in Humulus lupulus. [No abstract] da Costa Gomes 2016
Occurrence of S-glutathione precursors was evidenced in hops, explaining unexpectedly high levels of the grapefruit-like 3-sulfanyl-4-methylpentan-1-ol in dry-hopped beers. S-3-(1-Hydroxyhexyl) glutathione emerged in all cases as the major adduct in hop. Kankolongo Cibaka 2016
The levels of 117 bitter substances in various hop samples from around the globe were assessed. 2",3"-Epoxyxanthohumol was detected in hops for the first time, and isoxanthohumol M was identified as a marker compound for varieties grown in Germany. Dresel 2016
Three new compounds (4-hydroxycolupulone, humudifucol, and cascadone) were identified in an Italian sample of Humulus lupulus cv. Cascade, with humudifucol being the first prenylated dimeric phlorotannin discovered in nature. Forino 2016
Hop volatiles were absorbed by crown cork liner polymers and can coatings in the order: limonene > α-humulene > trans-caryophyllene > myrcene ≫ linalool > α-terpineol > geraniol; oxygen-barrier-type crown cork showed somewhat different pattern, compared to other liners. Wietstock 2016
A method for enantiomer-specific quantitation of 6-prenylnaringenin in health products and dietary supplements was developed. 6-Prenylnaringenin was found in 25 of 34 products containing plant material or extracts of Humulus lupulus. Martinez 2015
Five theaspirane-derived compounds were identified in specific hop varieties, as well as beer. Scholtes 2015
A method for the quantitation of 3 thiols in beer, hop, and wort, by stir bar sorptive extraction with in-situ derivatization and thermal desorption, gas chromatography, and tandem mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS/MS), was developed. Ochiai 2015
Bitter acid oxides, derived from the hop bitter acids, the effects of which on health are not clear, were identified and found to be primarily composed of α-acid-derived oxides. An HPLC method for their determination in beer was developed. Taniguchi 2015
Eleven new bitter compounds are reported from the hard resin of hops. Dresel 2015
Free terpenoids and both free and bound polyfunctional thiols (mercaptans) were investigated in five different hop cultivars. Kankolongo Cibaka 2015
Phenolic compounds in beer were identified using high resolution mass spectrometry. Quifer-Rada 2015
Rapidly acquired infrared, near-infrared, and Raman spectra were appraised using standard statistical metrics for screening for α-acid, total bitter acids, and cohumulone concentrations in powdered hops. Killeen 2014
Humulinones and hulupones (soft-resin components) and 4'-hydroxyallohumulinones and tricyclooxyisohumulones A and B (hard-resin components) were identified as products of oxidation of α- or β-acids in hop resin. Taniguchi 2014
A new, HPLC with diode array and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry detection method was developed and successfully applied for the metabolite fingerprinting of bioactive compounds in hops. Prencipe 2014
A xanthohumol-rich hop extract inhibited the differentiation of 3T3L1 preadipocytes. Kiyofuji 2014
Biological and chemical standardization of a hop extract was performed, with the goal of producing a botanical dietary supplement for subsequent clinical investigations of safety and efficacy. Krause 2014
Auto-oxidation products of humulone, namely, tricyclooxyisohumulones A and B, tricycloperoxyisohumulone A, deisopropyltricycloisohumulone, and hemiacetal of tricycloperoxyhumulone A, were identified in stored hops. Taniguchi 2014
The structures of oxidation products of hop β-acids were elucidated by hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap MS, and two novel structures were identified and named epoxycohulupone and epoxyhulupone, respectively. Dušek 2014
Novel compounds with quinone reductase-inducing activity were identified in hops. Yu 2014
Over 100 types of polyphenols and related compounds were isolated from a hop bract extract. Tanaka 2014
Differences in the chemical profiles of regular and low- or non-alcoholic beers are characterized. Andrés-Iglesias 2014
Different extracts of hops differ in their antioxidant activities. Masek 2014
Application of the dried blood spot sampling technique to the analysis of the pharmacokinetic study of xanthohumol, a hop compound, in humans, is reviewed. Legette 2013
Carotenoids lutein, β-carotene, neoxanthin and violaxanthin in the young shoots of wild hops growing in Spain were analyzed by HPLC. García-Herrera 2013
Oxidation products of α- and β-acids, forming during hop storage, were analyzed. Taniguchi 2013
Volatile profiles of four different hop cultivars were characterized by the headspace solid-phase microextraction and hydrodistillation techniques. Vázquez-Araújo 2013
This article reports on a DNA-based method of analysis of beer quality. Nakamura 2013
A mathematical model was developed for predicting the content of alpha-acids, based on the sum of effective temperatures and rainfalls from second germination till cones maturity, in hop cultivar 'Aurora.' Srečec 2013
The compounds in hops affecting the aroma characteristics of beer were profiled. Inui 2013
The analysis of beer and hops polyphenols by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization triple quadruple mass spectrometry was improved by performing the analysis at neutral pH, due to degradation of the compounds at acidic conditions. Quifer-Rada 2013
This article describes a protocol for untargeted metabolic profiling of polar and nonpolar metabolites with a single extraction and using a single analytical platform. Kirkwood 2013
This article reports on a HPLC-DAD-MS method for the determination of prenylflavonoids and hop bitter acids in beer lee, a by-product from beer brewing process. Kao 2013
This article reports on the optimization of the ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography procedure for the determination of hop prenylflavonoids in beers. Gonçalves 2013
Several compounds were identified in hops for the first time. [Article in Chinese] Zhang 2013
The contribution of individual hop compounds to the antioxidant activities of hop cones and commercial hop products was investigated. Gorjanović 2013
This review summarizes the analytical methods for the quantitative analysis of prenylated flavonoids from hops (xanthohumol and desmethylxanthohumol). Nikolić 2013
The antioxidant activities and total phenolic content of various extracts from hops were compared. Önder 2013
The oxygenated sesquiterpenoid volatile oil fractions of novel hop varietals were characterized by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry. Van Opstaele 2013
A headspace-trap method in combination with gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) was developed for the determination of volatile compounds in hops. Aberl 2012
Levels of polyfunctional thiols were evaluated in beers produced with different hop varieties. Gros 2012
A method for profiling the terpenoid metabolomic pattern of hop essential oil was developed and validated with the analysis of the Saaz variety. Gonçalves 2012
The thermodynamic parameters of the reaction of lupulones (β-acids) from hops and 1-hydroxyethyl radical, formed during bioethanol production, were calculated, and the major reaction products identified by LC-ESI-IT-MS/MS and ultrahigh-resolution accurate mass spectrometry. de Almeida 2012
An ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) tandem mass-spectrometry method was developed for quantitative determination of prenylflavonoids from hop in human serum. Yuan 2012
Isolation of bitter acids from hops by countercurrent chromatography resulted in individual ρ iso α-acids (purity, >95%) obtained. Dahlberg 2012
Biological activities of five phloroglucinol derivatives, five chalcones, four flavanones, two flavonol glycosides, and five triterpenoids, isolated from the female inflorescence pellet extracts of hops, were evaluated. Akazawa 2012
cis- and trans-isohumulones and dihydroisohumulones (bitter acids in beer), but not tetrahydroisohumulones are degraded in the presence of 1-hydroxyethyl radical in beer. de Almeida 2011
The transformation of hop-derived compounds contributing to the bitter taste of beer during beer storage is explored. Intelmann 2011
The polyphenolic and terpenophenolic content of hop cones was quantitated using UPLC-PDA and LC-TOF-MS, and mapped over five developmental stages of the cones. Kavalier 2011
The combined application of hop beta-acids and lactic acid bacteria to beet pulp silage improved the quality of the silage due to inhibition of clostridia growth. Emerstorfer 2011
The extraction of xanthohumol from beer samples was achieved by magnetic mixed hemimicelles solid-phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet determination. Ding 2011
Xanthohumol, a diacylglycerol acyltransferase inhibitor, was used for the validation of a surface plasmon resonance method of analysis of the enzyme interactions. Kamisaka 2011
A square-wave adsorptive-stripping voltammetry method for the determination of xanthohumol in spent hops was developed. Moreira 2011
The chemical differences between the 'Tomahawk' hop cultivar and the Nelson Sauvin, Nugget, Cascade, and Saaz varietes were investigated. Gros 2011
A high-performance liquid-chromatographic method was developed for the analysis of acidic components in hops extracts. [Article in Chinese] Cai 2011
Hydroperoxy- and hydroxyl-allo-iso-alpha-acids were reported in beer as products of oxidation of iso-alpha-acids, bitter compounds from hops, during storage. Intelmann 2010
The adsorption of phenolic compounds to polyvinylpolypyrrolidone was studied for its possible application to the HPLC separation and determination of the hop phenolic compounds. Magalhães 2010
A green, rapid, and inexpensive method for extraction and determination of xanthohumol in beer, based on cloud point extraction, HPLC separation, and UV detection, is reported. Chen 2010
A new HPLC-MS method for the determination of major phytoestrogens and their gut microbial metabolites, including xanthohumol, isoxanthohumol, and 8-prenylnaringenin, in human urine and serum was developed. Wyns 2010
Beer is a rich source of silicon, but hops do not contribute significantly to the amount of silicon in beer. Casey 2010
Biotransformation of hop monoterpenes during beer production and the influence of geraniol and beta-citronellol on beer flavor are investigated. Takoi 2010
The transformation of hop compounds contributing to the taste of beer throughout a beer manufacturing process was tracked with HPLC-MS/MS. Haseleu 2010
A method for the quantitation of xanthohumol, isoxanthohumol, 8-prenylnaringenin, and 6-prenylnaringenin in hop products, using secondary standards, was developed. Dhooghe 2010
The stereospecificity of conversion of trans-, but not cis-, iso-alpha-acids (hop-derived bitter compounds) into the tri- and tetracyclic degradation products in beer during storage is explained. Intelmann 2009
Previously unknown trans-specific products of transformation of iso-alpha-acids, the bitter principles in beer, were identified as tricyclocohumol, tricyclocohumene, isotricyclocohumene, tetracyclocohumol, and epitetracyclocohumol. Intelmann 2009
The dynamics of a hop prenylphenol, desmethylxanthohumol, in conditions similar to physiological and in vitro settings, was investigated. Chen 2009
Concentrations of hop beta-acids, xanthohumol, and isoxanthohumol increase during the storage of beer, while alpha-acids and trans-iso-alpha-acids are unstable. Intelmann 2009
Two new volatile thiols were identified in the Nelson Sauvin hop cultivar. Takoi 2009
The mechanism of the antibacterial action of hop constituents against beer-spoiling bacteria was investigated. Behr 2009
Capillary zone electrophoresis method for the determination of bitter alpha-acids in hop cone extracts is presented. Kornysova 2009
Chemical products of the transformation of the hop beta-acid colupulone after thermal treatment, such as occurs during beer manufacturing, were identified and quantitatively determined. Haseleu 2009
Upwards of 80 low polar and polar hop compounds are detected in various Czech beers with two optimized high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) methods. Ceslová 2009
A method for the determination of xanthohumol in beer using solid-phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography is reported. [Article in Chinese] Wang 2009
A varietal characterization of hop varieties grown in Tasmania, Australia, was performed with gas chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry. Shellie 2009
Prenylnaringenins (6-prenylnaringenin, 8-prenylnaringenin, 6,8-diprenylnaringenin) were not found in any of the dietary supplement products tested, among those found on sale in the UK, Canada, and Italy. Clarke 2008
Determination of estrogenic compounds 8-prenylnaringenin, zearalenone, alpha-zearalenol, and beta-zearalenol in beer was achieved. Maragou 2008
4-Mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one content in different hop cultivars were analyzed. Kishimoto 2008
8-Prenylnaringenin was identified as an estrogen receptor ligand in a hop extract. Choi 2008
Mass spectral analysis of A-type proanthocyanidins from hops was performed. Li 2008
Two new prenylchalcones, xanthohumol C and D, were discovered in hops. Wang 2008
A method for the determination of eleven agrochemicals in dried hops was developed. Hengel 2008
Kinetics of hop alpha-acids in beer was studied. Jaskula 2008
Cytotoxicity and antioxidant effects of minor hop compounds were tested. Vogel 2008
The article presents a capillary electrophoretic method for the determination of xanthohumol in hop extracts. Kac 2007
The bioactive components of different hop extracts were compared using techniques of capillary zone electrophoresis, high-performance liquid chromatography-mass-spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass-spectrometry. Helmja 2007
A reversed-phase HPLC method for resolving the stereochemical configuration of hop flavanone diastereomeric esters is described. Philbin 2007
Isomerized alpha-acids were determined in beer, using solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography. [Article in Chinese] Li 2007
The compounds responsible for the beer aroma were identified as 14-hydroxy-beta-caryophyllene, geraniol, linalool, beta-ionone, and eugenol. Eyres 2007
Six iso-alpha-acids were isolated from a carbon dioxide extract of hop cones and identified by one- and two-dimensional NMR and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. Khatib 2007
Chiral resolution of isoxanthohumol in beer samples by micellar electrokinetic chromatography identified almost racemic mixture of (+)- and (-)-isoxanthohumol. Kodama 2007
A method of detection and quantification of ergosterol (provitamin D2) and ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) in different commercial forms of hops was developed. Magalhães 2007
An analytical method for the determination of the neo-nicotinoid insecticide flonicamid and its metabolites in dried hops was developed. Hengel 2007
Total synthesis of xanthohumol was accomplished. Khupse 2007
The levels of trans-resveratrol and trans-piceid were quantified in 40 American and European hop varieties. Jerkovic 2007
A method for the determination of xanthohumol and isoxanthohumol in different hop products, using methanol/formic acid by ultra-sonication and subsequent analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection, is proposed. Magalhães 2007
The concentrations of alpha-acids, beta-acids, desmethylxanthohumol, and xanthohumol were monitored in the hop varieties Admiral (A), Wye Challenger (WC), and First Gold (FG) during the harvest seasons. Keukeleire 2007
Piperitone was not detected in the essential oil of Humulus lupulus and could not observe any clear areas in the simple TLC bioautographic method developed for detection of antibiotic resistance reversal agents. Shahverdi 2007
A new sensitive and validated HPLC method with coulometric detection for the quantification of xanthohumol, alpha-acids and beta-acids in hops was developed. Kac 2007
Using heart-cut multidimensional gas chromatography-olfactometry on a hop essential oil sample, eight significant peaks were resolved from an 18s heart-cut where a potent odorant was perceived during gas chromatography-olfactometry. Eyres 2007
Hop acids and their oxidized derivatives were investigated in beer by capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. García-Villalba 2006
Methanolic extracts of hops were characterized by capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. Arráez-Román 2006
Up to 1 mg/kg trans-resveratrol, 4-9 mg/kg of trans-piceid, and 2-6 mg/kg of cis-piceid were detected in hop pellets from different cultivars. The lower the alpha-acid content, the higher the total stilbene content. Jerkovic 2005
Electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry fingerprinting of beer was performed. Araújo 2005
Four known prenylflavonoids and its six new derivatives were isolated from the active fraction of hops. The structures were determined on the basis of physiochemical properties and spectroscopic analysis. Zhao 2005
The concentrations of prenylated chalcones and bitter acids were analyzed in Czech hop varieties. The highest levels of (xanthohumol + desmethylxanthohumol) (0.97%, m/m) and of total bitter acids (17.19%, m/m) were observed for cv. Agnus. Matousek 2005
Demethylxanthohumol, a new potent apoptosis-inducing agent from hops (Humulus lupulus) was synthesized by an aldol condensation between MOM-protected acetophenone 2 and MOM-protected benzaldehyde 3. Diller 2005
The polyphenol-enriched fraction of an ethanolic hops extract (Humulus lupulus) with anti-inflammatory activity was separated to provide four acylphloroglucinol-glucopyranosides (1-4) for the first time. Bohr 2005
Extraction of flavonoids from waste hops (SC-CO(2) extracted hops) using supercritical fluids technology was investigated. Various temperatures, pressures and concentrations of ethanol (modifier) and the ratio (w/w) of solvent to material were tested in this study. He 2005
A new mass spectrometric screening assay was demonstrated to facilitate the discovery of chemoprevention agents in complex natural product mixtures including Humulus lupulus extract. Liu 2005
The decomposition of isohumulones, the bitter compounds in beer, occurs via interaction with riboflavin, adversely affecting beer quality in the result. Huvaere 2004
A liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous analysis of hop iso-alpha-acids and reduced iso-alpha-acids in beer is presented. Vanhoenacker 2004
A micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography method for simultaneous analysis of 26 beer constituents, including iso-alpha-acids and flavonoids from hops, was developed. Cortacero-Ramírez 2004
The contents of 6- and 8-prenylnaringenin was determined in UK hop-based beers. Clarke 2004
The applicability of on-line coupling of RP-HPLC to atmospheric pressure ionization tandem mass spectrometry for the separation and characterization of hop acids mixture from the crude extract of Humulus lupulus was investigated. Zhang 2004
Oxidation of hop-derived beer components dihydroisohumulones, trans-isohumulones, tetrahydroisohumulones, and humulinones was studied under different conditions. Huvaere 2003
The key compounds for flavor and potential beneficial health effects associated with beer not only reside in the glandular lupulin structures but also are distributed over various parts of the hop plant. De Keukeleire 2003
Two compounds, (p-methoxyphenyl) diphenylmethanol (1) and tribenzylamine (2), were isolated from Humulus lupulus. Their structures were established on the basis of spectral evidence. Qu 2003
Proanthocyanidin fractions extracted from hops were analyzed by acid catalysis, electrospray ionization and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), and gel permeation chromatography. Taylor 2003
Proanthocyanidins from hops (Humulus lupulus) were characterized for their chemical structure and their in vitro biological activities. Stevens 2002
A novel, NMR-based method for the quantification of three main alpha-acids (cohumulone, humulone, and adhumulone) in hop and hop products is presented. Hoek 2001
Elemental changes during the induction of organogenesis from internode-derived nodules of Humulus lupulus var. Nugget were studied by electron probe X-ray microanalysis. Fortes 2001
A supercritical fluid chromatographic method combined with Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy detection (SFC-FTIR) was developed for determination of varietal differences in essential oil constituents in hops (Humulus lupulus). Auerbach 2000
Application of aroma extract dilution analysis on the volatiles obtained from dried cones of Spalter Select hops grown in the German hop-growing area of Hallertau revealed 23 odorants in the flavor dilution factor range of 16-4096. Steinhaus 2000
Monoterpenoids are important flavour compounds produced by many plant species, including grapes (Vitis vinifera) and hops (Humulus lupulus). King 2000
The use of direct thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (DTD-GC-MS) and DTD-GC-flame ionization detection for characterization of hop essential oils is described. Eri 2000
The resins produced by either lupulin or leaf glands of over 120 plants of Humulus lupulus were analyzed for the presence of prenylated flavonoids which revealed flavonoid dichotomy (presence versus absence of 4'-O-methylchalcones). Stevens 2000
The concentration of 8-prenylnaringenin, a novel hop-derived phytoestrogen, in beers was studied by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Most beers were found to not contain 8-prenylnaringenin in detectable quantities. The highest concentration found was 19.8 micrograms per liter. Tekel' 1999
A method for the determination of alpha-acid in hop and a hop extract by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatgraphy is presented. [Article in Chinese] Chen 1999
Phlorisovalerophenone synthase, from hop cone hairs, catalyzes formation of phlorisovalerophenone or phlorisobutyrophenone. It is a homodimer of 45 kD subunits and homologous to chalcone synthases Paniego 1999
Prenylflavonoids (xanthohumol, isoxanthohumol, desmethylxanthohumol, 6- and 8-prenylnaringenins, and 6-geranylnaringenin) in hops and beer were analyzed by HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry. Stevens 1999
Identification and structure elucidation of hop bitter acids (humulones and isohumulones) was achieved by on-line coupling of capillary electrochromatography, capillary electrophoresis, and capillary HPLC with nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Pusecker 1998
Preisomerized alpha hop acids, hexahydroisohumulone and tetrahydroisohumulone were safe to dogs at 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight (a litre of beer provides <0.25 mg/kg) Chappel 1998
Phytoestrogens are present in many plants including beans, sprouts, cabbage, spinach, soyabean, grains and hops; a review Humfrey 1998
Avermectin determination in dried hops by RPLC has a detection limit of 2 ng/g Cobin 1996
Supercritical fluid extraction of the essential oil and the bitter principles of hops was performed. Profiles of the essential oils of different hop varieties were compared, and the bitter principles (the humulones and lupulones) analyzed by micro-LC and MEKC. Verschuere 1992
Isomerazation of humulone from hops SFE extract; US Patent 5,155,276
Various method for the quantification of hop bitter acids were compared. Micro-liquid chromatography showed slightly better performance, partially because it more readily showed the presence of deoxy-alpha-acids. Schuddinck 1987
[Detection of sedative-hypnotic active ingredients in hops. 5. Degradation of bitter acids to 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol, a hop constituent with sedative-hypnotic activity]. [Article in German] [No abstract] Wohlfart 1983
The contents of 2-methyl-3-butene-2-ol, a sedative hop constituent, in a large number of hops, hop extracts, and drugs was determined, found to be low in many products, and to increase in hops after drying to reach maximum levels within 2 years of storing at room temperature. [Article in German] Hänsel 1982
[A capillary gas-liquid chromatographic method for determination of ethylenethiourea and prophylenethiourea in hops, beer, and grapes.] Nitz 1982
[Demonstration of phytoestrogens in feed plants and hops by means of receptor test]. Hesse 1981
[Protein quality evaluation of spent hops.] Wallen 1979
Flavanol analysis with barley and hops McMurrough 1978
Polyphenols, leucoanthocyanins and tannin in hops and barley Knorr 1978
Lupulin enrichment of hops; US Patent 4,053,653
[The absence of tetrahydrocannabinol from hops.] Fenselau 1976
[Is oestrogenic activity present in hops?] Fenselau 1973
[Separation and identification of (+)-gallocatechine in hops]. Gorissen 1968
History of Record
November 1999
MAJOR REVISION BY: Michael C. Tims, PhD. candidate
June 2001
March 2023