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Scientific Name:
Humulus lupulus
Family Name:
Common Name:
hop, hops
Safety Data
Adverse Effects & Toxicity
Hops toxicosis in dogs. [No abstract] Bates 2021
An article presents a retrospective analysis of 71 cases of hop toxicosis in dogs, all of whom showed significant hyperthermia, tachypnea, and tachycardia, with only 77% of the animals surviving. Pfaff 2021
A randomized, triple-masked, placebo-controlled, phase I clinical trial (N=30) found xanthohumol, administered at 24 mg/day for 8 weeks, to be safe and well-tolerated with no serious adverse events or differences in laboratory biomarkers, body weight, vital signs, or health-related quality of life in healthy human adults. Langley 2021
Hop (H. lupulus) constituents decreased the production of butyrate by human gut-derived bacteria, and increased the counts of potentially pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae and potentially beneficial Akkermansia, in vitro. Blatchford 2019
A study determined the cytotoxic effects of a complex dry extract of marsh cinquefoil, creeping alfalfa, and common hop on tumor cells and mononuclear blood cells in vitro. Babaskina 2019
A publication reports on the toxicity assessment of Czech beers, as well as their raw materials (including hops). Merinas-Amo 2019
An expert review suggests that hops have never been shown to cause any signs of hepatotoxicity, such as serum enzyme elevations or clinically apparent liver injury. [No authors listed] 2018
A discussion of the safety and efficacy data related to potential use of hops during breastfeeding is provided. [No authors listed] 2018
No chromosomal abnormalities were observed with the 2,000 mg/kg dose of a matured hop extract; no deaths or signs of toxicity were recorded in the acute and subchronic safety studies. The NOAEL was found to be over 3,484 mg/kg body weight/day (males) or 4,022 mg/kg body weight/day (females). Suzuki 2018
A spent hop extract (Aronox) showed very low cytotoxicity with regard to mitochondrial membrane potential, cell membrane integrity, and nuclear morphology, in a panel of five cell lines (HepG2, Caco-2, A549, HMEC-1, and 3T3), using a high-content screening assay. Boncler 2017
Xanthohumol was the most potent inhibitor, among multiple substances, of glucose uptake by human first trimester extravillous trophoblast cells, and may have a deleterious impact in the process of placentation. Correia-Branco 2015
8‑Prenylnaringenin increased the uterine wet weight, uterine epithelial thickness, and proliferating vaginal cells, in rats. Keiler 2015
8-prenylnaringenin inhibited maturation of porcine oocytes in vitro. Solak 2014
Sensitization to sorghum or sorghum malt, rather than hops, was the most common type of beer allergy in Chinese individuals. Song 2014
The use of hop- and soy-containing supplements with phyto-oestrogenic properties was implicated as a possible cause of postmenopausal bleeding in several women in the Netherlands. [Article in Dutch] van Hunsel 2012
Over 9% of patients with allergic rhinitis in the Changzhou district of the Jiangsu province, China, had sensitivity to Humulus sp., as determined by the skin prick test. [Article in Chinese] Yao 2012
Xanthohumol was found to have potential liver toxicity, which may alert the FDA for testing in biological models. Wang 2011
Oral xanthohumol administration does not impair organ function and homoeostasis, hepatic glycogen CYP2E1 and CYP1A2 expression, but reduces CYP3A11 mRNA, in mice. Dorn 2010
8-Phenylnaringenin increased the genotoxicity of aflatoxin B1. Gross-Steinmeyer 2009
According to the estimate, Humulus pollen was the major airborne pollen in Beijing city, China, in August-September, 2007, with 28.2% patients suffering from hay fever or asthma being allergic to it. [Article in Chinese] Yao 2009
The allergenic proteins of Humulus pollen were analyzed. [Article in Chinese] Liu 2008
Hop bracts polyphenols acute, 14-day, 28-day, and 90-day toxicity and mutagenicity were evaluated. The preparation produced no signs of toxicity in mice, and only slight mutagenicity at the high dose in the Ames test, while the mutagenicity was negative in the micronucleus test. Nagasako-Akazome 2007
Xanthohumol did not cause significant increases in body weight and appearance, reduced liver weights and attenuated mammary gland development, but did not have any adverse effects on female reproduction and the development of offspring, in the 4-week subchronic toxicity study, in rats. Hussong 2005
It is indicated that oral administration of tangeretin or xanthohumol to laboratory mice does not affect major organ functions. Vanhoecke 2005
Among microbial factors associated with hop dust, bacterial endotoxin and allergenic fungi pose the greatest potential hazard for exposed hop farmers. Gora 2004
Among 23 hops farmers exposed to organic dust from hop, 5 farmers reported occurrence of work-related symptoms, including dry cough and dyspnoea. Eight farmers (34.8%) reported symptoms of chronic bronchitis. Skorska 2003
In regard to food-related allergens, an association was noted between Hop (Humulus lupulus) or celery allergens in those sensitized to Hop J pollen. Park 2001
More positive skin prick tests were recorded in 37 brewery workers for molds, hops, and barley than in controls. Increased serum levels of total IgE were found in 34/97 (45.1%) brewery workers and in 1/76 (2.7%) of controls Godnic-Cvar 1999
Spent hops ingested by 5 dogs resulted in hyperthermia, restlessness, panting, vomiting, signs of abdominal pain, and seizures, possibly by uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation Duncan 1997
Brewery dust extracts of barley, hops and brewery yeast cause a dose related airway smooth muscle constriction by nonimmunological mechanisms involving cholinergic receptors in guinea pigs Zuskin 1997
70% of 17 workers exposed to hop dust had signs of bronchial irritation Meznar 1990
Aniseed, cashew nut, celery, flaxseed, hops, mustard, mushroom, shrimp, sunflower, and walnut cause reaction in some allergic patients Stricker 1986
[Working conditions and various physiological parameters of workers in factories producing malt hops]. Kiril'chuk 1983
[Morbidity of workers engaged in the cultivation and processing of hops]. Kiril'chuk 1983
[Problems of industrial hygiene in the cultivation of hops]. Kiril'chuk 1979
[Hops allergy and terpene sensitivity: an occupational disease.] Newmark 1978
[Clinical physiological data on the state of the organ of vision in persons engaged in the cultivation and processing of hops]. Makarenko 1978
Problems of the work hygiene of hop growers in the manual harvesting and drying of the hops. [No abstract] [Article in Russian] Aleksandrov 1977
[Poisoning of cattle by fungus infected brewery hops]. Kurmanov 1968
History of Record
November 1999
MAJOR REVISION BY: Michael C. Tims, PhD. candidate
June 2001
March 2023