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Results from sensory trials have indicated that most tasters were unable to distinguish between espresso brewed at 80 °C and 93 °C, proving the possibility of decreasing the health hazards of very hot beverages by lowering brewing temperatures. Klotz 2020
Assessment of the physicochemical, nutritional, and sensory properties of gluten-free breads containing isolated coffee cascara dietary fiber. Rios 2020
The addition of spent coffee grounds with fructooligosaccharides (SC-FOS) or spent coffee grounds antioxidant dietary fiber (SCF) to biscuits increased protein and total dietary fiber, while the addition of SCF increased satiety. They were well tolerated by the healthy overweight volunteers. Campos-Vega 2020
Reviewed evidence related to bioavailability and bioaccessibility of polyphenols, including those from coffee, in microencapsulated fomulations and their use in the improvement or amelioration of diabetes. Annunziata 2020
Controlled-second fermentation for 4-8 h using three bacterial isolates from feces of civet (Luwak) and Cilembu sweet potato successfully increased total polyphenol content and improved the complexity of coffee taste and coffee quality in Indonesian Coffea arabica green coffee beans from 3 origins. Aditiawati 2020
Explored microencapsulation of green coffee oil using cashew gum and gelatin complexation for use as an ingredient in fruit juice. Oliveira 2020
Presentation of a multiscale model for coffee aroma extraction for the purpose of adding back to instant coffee preparations describing (i) the release from the matrix, (ii) intraparticle diffusion, (iii) transfer into water and steam, and (iv) advection through the column mechanisms. Beverly 2020
Corona discharge plasma jet (CDPJ) treatment decreased initial concentrations of benzopyrene and acrylamide in roasted coffee beans by by 53.6% and 32.0%, respectively. DCPJ treatment also affected biochemical and sensory properties. Lee 2020
Demonstrated the role of yeasts in the wet fermentation of coffee beans and their contribution to coffee quality by adding a fungicide to suppress yeast growth and their metabolic activities. The microbial ecology, bean chemistry, and sensory quality were compared to normal conditions. Elhalis 2020
The addition of green coffee infusion greatly increased the overall bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds from whole-wheat breads. Barreto 2020
Coffee flavor biotransformation through controlled fermentation of sterilized green coffee beans with a coculture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia kluyveri and a sequential inoculation of Lc. lactis subsp. cremoris and the yeast coculture. Wang 2020
Evaluated the potential of coffee pulp and coffee wastewater as substrate for alcoholic fermentation to produce a distilled beverage. Most of the volatile compounds were ethyl esters, associated with floral and sweet aromas. Testers rated the spirits with high taste and aroma acceptance. Lopes 2020
Addition of spray dried microparticles with higher loads of roasted coffee oil was effective in increasing aroma intensity in soluble coffee. For instant coffee, all loads of microparticles improved aroma intensity. Zanin 2020
Elucidate the variables that govern coffee extraction from single serve coffee capsules using Nespresso and Nespresso-compatible capsules of the same geometry. The proportion of fines (particles smaller than 100 µm) is important in capsule extraction dynamics. Eiermann 2020
Pre-treatment by soaking in varying levels of acetic acid modified composition of aroma compounds in Robusta coffee. Liu 2019
Developed chitosan coated calcium alginate beads for covalent immobilization of acrylamidase for the removal of acrylamide from coffee. Bedade 2019
The amount and origin of silverskin significantly influenced all the physicochemical parameters of cow whole-milk yogurt, increasing its nutritional value. Arabica had the highest 5-caffeoylquinic acid content and the strongest antioxidant activity, whereas Robusta gave the highest caffeine content. Bertolino 2019
Under the simulated gastric juice and bile salts solution, microencapsulation provided significantly better protection compared to non-encapsulated chlorogenic acid enriched green coffee extract. Desai 2019
Partial replacement of wheat with coffee silverskin (CSS) improved functional quality of cookies by increasing phenolic contents, antioxidant capacities, and their in vitro bioaccessibilities. CSS cookies passed baseline sensory evaluation tests. Gocmen 2019
Cold plasma treatment may be an alternative method for the degradation and reduction of toxin production by mycotoxigenic fungi in the processing of coffee. Casas-Junco 2019
Systematic comprehensive study into the structural and thermodynamic insights into the ß-cyclodextrin (ß-CD) encapsulation of key coffee compounds using single-crystal X-ray diffraction and DFT calculation, which may enrich coffee's antioxidant capacity and mask its bitterness. Aree 2019
Tested the efficiency of coffee sterilization and adhesion of microbial cells on beans. Yeast starters were better producers of volatile alcohols and bacterial starters of acid compounds in coffee beans. Flavor marker precursors were selected during wet fermentation process. Martinez 2019
The impregnation of coffee extract into bacterial cellulose synthesized from kombucha tea fungus provided biocomposites found to inhibit Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus. These biocomposites may have potential in wound-healing applications. El-Wakil 2019
Ultrasound-assisted brewing increased the extraction of caffeine, triglycerides, and key volatile compounds from coffee, though it decreased the concentration of antioxidants. Zamanipoor 2019
Optimization of the process of nanoencapsulation of green coffee bean by spray drying. Desai 2019
The thresholds of consumer rejection and of detection indicated that up to 30% steamed coffee can be added to a high quality Coffea arabica coffee without perception or rejection. Kalschne 2018
High-pressure processing treatment can simultaneously increase GABA content and inhibit the growth of Aspergillus fresenii, thereby effectively reducing the production and accumulation of ochratoxin A and maintaining the microbiological safety of coffee beans. Chen 2018
Experiments investigated the effect of microwave vacuum drying on the drying characteristics and quality attributes of green coffee beans. Dong 2018
Optimization of the process of high intensity ultra-sound for the decaffeination of coffee beans in an aqueous medium. Huamaní-Meléndez 2018
Steaming and decaffeination of coffee beans increases antioxidant activities of brews in comparison with those prepared from unprocessed beans. Concentrations of toxins and novel fungi were acceptable according to legal limits. Jeszka-Skowron 2017
Evaluation of a combined hot pressurized liquid extraction-resin purification process to obtained polyphenol extracts from spent ground coffee reduced in hydroxymethylfurfural. Mariotti-Celis 2017
Evaluation of freeze-drying and spray-drying techniques for encapsulation of phenolic compounds (PC) extracted from spent coffee grounds. The best results were achieved when PC were encapsulated by freeze-drying using maltodextrin as wall material. Ballesteros 2017
Investigation into the rheological, physico-sensory and antioxidant properties of green coffee extract enhanced breads. Sensory evaluation showed that maximum level of incorporation of GCE without adverse effect on the overall quality of bread (especially taste) was at 1.5% level. Mukkundur Vasudevaiah 2017
Results from an in-vitro simulated digestion study of a coffee fiber-containing biscuit indicated it could reduce monosaccharide bioaccessibility, inhibit a diabetes-related digestive enzyme, and improve the release of satiety hormones. Martinez-Saez 2017
When decaffeinating coffee, montmorillonite demonstrated a greater adsorption selectivity for caffeine in coffee extract than activated carbon, better preserving caffeoylquinic acids, feruloylquinic acids, dicaffeoylquinic acids, and caffeoylquinic lactones within the extract. Shiono 2017
Innoculated pulped Mundo Novo and Ouro Amarelo coffee beans with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (CCMA 0200 and CCMA 0543) during semi-dry coffee fermentation and compared the chemical and sensorial properties of the final beverage to a non-inoculated control. Ribeiro 2017
Analysis of the antioxidant and nutritional properties of soymilk enriched with green coffee phenolics, with special attention paid to the effect of phenolics-food matrix interactions on fortification efficiency. Sęczyk 2017
In vitro evaluation of the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of phenolics, caffeine, and antioxidant activity of wheat bread enriched with green coffee. Świeca 2017
Reviewed the dynamics of coffee germination and fermentation, as well as the microbiota associated with the beans during post-harvesting, and their significance for coffee chemistry, quality, and safety. Waters 2017
Optimization of ultrasound-assisted solid-liquid extraction of phytochemicals from spent coffee grounds using Box-Behnken statistical experimental design. Al-Dhabi 2017
Evaluation of the use of spent coffee grounds (SCG)from instant coffee as a food ingredient and its application in bakery products. SCGs are a natural source of antioxidant insoluble fibre, essential amino acids and low glycaemic sugars. Martinez-Saez 2017
A review investigating the use of controlled starter cultures in coffee fermentation and its impact on bean quality, with coverage of the ecology, biochemistry, and molecular biology involved. Vinícius de Melo Pereira 2017
An in vitro skin permeation study demonstrated that nanostructured lipid carriers associated with caffeine extracted from coffee silverskin (CS) had a similar skin permeation profile when compared to caffeine from CS. Rodrigues 2016
Development of instant coffees enriched with chlorogenic acids composed of different concentrations of extracts of green Coffea canephora beans added to extracts of roasted C. arabica and C. canephora. Formulations developed with C. canephora showed greater antioxidant potential. Corso 2016
The combination of three multifunctional solid particles and green coffee oil contributed to achieve a stable and effective innovative sunscreen with a wide range of UV radiation protection. Marto 2016
A topical body cream containing coffee silverskin and Medicago sativa extracts was found to be stable and safe for topical use, as no adverse and/or side effects were observed during the testing period. Skin hydration improved after 30 days of use. Rodrigues 2016
A hand cream containing 2.5% (w/w) of coffee silverskin extract showed stable physical characteristics independently of storage conditions. While DPPH activity and total phenolic content were significantly higher compared to base formulation, antioxidant activity decreased slightly during storage. Rodrigues 2016
Coating roasted coffee beans with an edible layer of carboxymethyl cellulose, hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose, and whey protein concentrate preserved the coffee's volatile properties for a longer period of time post-processing, establishing a longer shelf life. Rattan 2015
The acrylamide (AA) content of canned coffee can be decreased by modifying the heat treatment used for sterilization during the manufacturing process. In this study, the AA content in canned coffee was decreased by 95% by heat treatment with added cysteine at 121 °C for 6 min. Narita 2014
Evaluation of the feasibility of using sequential microwave superheated water extraction for the recovery of mannans from spent coffee grounds. Passos 2014
Search for innovative uses for coffee silverskin led to development of an antioxidant beverage containing physiologically active concentrations of caffeine and chlorogenic acid for prevention of body fat accumulation and possessing acceptable sensorial properties. Martinez-Saez 2014
Vacuum-processed coffee with medium roast degree had approximately 50% less acrylamide than its conventionally roasted counterpart. It was inferred that the low pressure generated inside the oven during the vacuum process exerted a stripping effect preventing acrylamide from being accumulated. Anese 2014
Different extracts of coffee pulp have been used for the production of bioethanol and and coffee pulp can thus be mixed with sugarcane juice or molasses for the production of bioethanol, with a yield of approximately 70 g/L. Menezes 2013
Impact of roasting time on the sensory profile of arabica and robusta coffee were studied to identify sensory descriptors that might be used to determine blends production and evaluation, following the expectations of consumers. Bicho 2013
Individual coffee beans during the roasting process by direct micro-probe sampling on-line photo-ionisation mass spectrometric analysis of coffee roasting gases revealed knowledge of formation processes of volatile & semi-volatile flavour compounds in individual coffee bean. Hertz-Schünemann 2013
The chemical composition & the antioxidant activity of spent coffee grounds & coffee husks extracts, obtained by supercritical fluid extraction with CO(2) & with CO(2) and co-solvent was described. The main compounds were caffeine & chlorogenic acid for the supercritical extracts from coffee husks. Andrade 2012
HPLC analysis of 20 commercial espresso coffees revealed 6-fold differences in caffeine levels, a 17-fold range of caffeoylquinic acid contents, and 4-fold differences in the caffeoylquinic acid:caffeine ratio. Crozier 2012
To investigate the role of roasting conditions in antioxidant formation, extracts from Robusta coffee beans roasted for various lengths of time & at various temp. were analyzed for total phenolic acid, chlorogenic acid, & caffeine content and their antioxidant activities. Sulaiman 2011
It is confirmed that peeling immature unripe Arabica coffee beans can decrease fermentation processes while providing more uniform drying, thus reducing the number of defects and potentially increasing beverage quality. Dias 2011
Aroma recovery as determined by solid phase microextraction-gaschromatography-mass spectro metry was compared in coffees resulting from conventional grinding processes, and from wet grinding with cold and hot water. Baggenstoss 2011
Study was carried out for the evaluation of the effect of roasting on the structure of coffee galactomannans using model oligosaccharides. Moreira 2011
It is indicated that melanoidins from unroasted coffee beans form during the supercritical CO(2)-decaffeination process & possess biological properties distinct from those formed during the regular roasting process. Chen 2011
Arabica & Robusta coffee beans roasted at 220 ± 10°C for 7, 9 & 11 min to identify chemical descriptors in the beverages. The pH of beverages showed lowest value in the medium roasting level. In each degree of browning, the soluble solids content remained higher in Arabica drinks. Bicho 2011
The influence of roasting time and temperature on the degradation of the bitter precursors 3-O-caffeoyl quinic acid, 5-O-caffeoyl quinic acid, and 4-O-caffeoyl quinic acid as well as the formation of bitter tastants during coffee roasting was investigated. Blumberg 2010
The effect of the roasting degree on coffee brew melanoidin properties and formation mechanisms was studied and found that galactomannans are continuously incorporated in arabinogalactan proteins -melanoidins upon roasting. Bekedam 2008
Different Arabica & Robusta coffee beans from different regions of the world were analyzed for acrylamide after roasting in a laboratory roaster. Thermal decarboxylation & elimination of alpha-amino group of asparagine at high temp. led to a measurable but low formation of acrylamide. Bagdonaite 2008
A sampling method to isolate headspace volatiles of freshly brewed drip coffee using a solid-phase microextraction fiber (fiber type: divinylbenzene / carboxen / polydimethyl-siloxane) in a short time (2 min) immediately after extraction has been developed. Akiyama 2008
The impact of time-temp. combinations of roasting processes on the kinetics of aroma formation in coffee was investigated. Compared to low temp. long time roasting, high temp. short time roasting resulted in differences in the physical properties and kinetics of aroma formation. Baggenstoss 2008
Initial moisture of green coffee may vary as a function of green coffee processing and storage conditions. The impact of initial moisture and steam treatment on roasting behavior and aroma formation was investigated. Baggenstoss 2008
Arabica green coffee beans from Cuba were roasted under controlled conditions to monitor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons formation during the roasting process. Houessou 2008
In order to elucidate the biological causes for loss of viability of green coffee, differentially processed coffees (wet, dry, semi-dry processing), were stored under standard conditions for 2 years and analysed comprehensively. Selmar 2008
Sodium carbonate was the chosen additive to extend storage of coffee because it was the most useful in limiting the pH decrease and perception of sourness,which are factors involved in the rejection of stored coffee brews, and it better maintained the aroma and taste/flavor. Pérez-Martínez 2008
The drip brew of an arabica coffee contained more soluble dietary fiber than the drip brew of a comparable robusta coffee, and depending on the brewing procedure, the soluble dietary fiber content of beverages obtained from the same coffee sample ranged from 0.26 to 0.38 g/100 mL. Gniechwitz 2007
Arabica green coffee beans from Cuba were roasted under controlled conditions to monitor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) formation during the roasting process. Several PAHs were determined in both roasted coffee samples and green coffee samples. Houessou 2007
Coffee roasting experiments with air cooling versus water quench cooling were carried out on laboratory scale with a fluidized-bed hot air roasting system (200 g batch size) and on production scale with a rotating bowl roaster (320 kg batch size). Baggenstoss 2007
A study examining changes in key odorants of raw coffee beans during storage found the reduction of the water content in combination with lower temperatures can help avoid aroma changes in raw coffee beans caused by storage. Scheidig 2007
The effect of wetting on coffee closed porosity was studied by helium pycnometry, and finally, particle sizing was used to determine the swelling kinetics of coffee after wetting which can increase the understanding of the mechanisms of molecular mass transfer during extraction. Mateus 2007
The formation of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (HMF) & 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furoic acid (HMFA) during roasting of coffee was studied. Industrially roasted coffee contained up to 350 microg/g 5-hydroxymethyl-furfural and 140 microg/g HMFA. Murkovic 2007
The possibility of using roasted coffee silverskin, a byproduct of roasted coffee beans, as a dietary fiber (DF) -rich ingredient has been evaluated. Results of the investigation showed that this material has 60% total DF, with a relevant component (14%) of soluble DF. Borrelli 2004
The influence of grinding grades (coarse, fine, & very fine) in Arabica/Robusta 20:80, natural roasted (A20:R80) & Arabica/Robusta 20:80 with 50% Robusta torrefacto roasted (A20:R80 50% torrefacto) on chemical & sensorial characteristics of espresso coffee was studied. Andueza 2003
The work reports the results for the composition of robusta and arabica coffee species in terms of their amino acid enantiomers in the green and roasted states. The analyses were conducted for the free amino acids, as well as for the amino acids obtained after acid hydrolysis. Casal 2003
Processed (green) coffee beans from Coffea arabica in Brazil were assessed for the presence of Aspergillus and Penicillium species both before and after surface sterilisation, the aflatoxigenic and ochratoxigenic potential of the isolates and ochratoxin A levels. Batista 2003
The effect of water pressure on the final quality of Arabica espresso coffee (EC) as well as to classify ECs prepared at different pressures (7, 9, & 11 atm) according to their physicochemical & sensory characteristics, key odorants, by means of multivariate analysis was studied. Andueza 2002
It is suggested that better raw material quality, an appropriate drying and dehulling procedure combined with a reduction of green coffee defects can effectively contribute to the reduction of ochratoxin A in green coffee. Bucheli 2000
The lipid content and composition of boiled, filtered, dripped, turkish and espresso coffees prepared from roasted beans of coffea arabica & coffea robusta, and of coffees prepared from different brands of instant coffee were examined. Ratnayake 1993
Direct acting mutagenic activity was found in extracts of instant & roasted coffee beans using Salmonella typhimurium TA100. Mutagenicity of 4 pure coffee varieties examined (Coffea arabica Santos, C. arabica Columbia, C.robusta Indonesia, C. robusta Camerun) were within same range. Albertini 1985
Two varieties of Coffea robusta of light, medium and dark roasting degree were investigated. The results were similar to those which were published earlier concerning Coffea arabica. [Article in German] Asante 1975
A purification method for alpha-D-galactosidase from Coffea canephora is described. Two enzymes, alpha-D-galactosidases I and II, having molecular weights of 28,000 and 36,500, respectively, were found and extensively purified. The reaction mechanism of alpha-D-galactosidase II was studied. Carchon 1975
History of Record
ORIGINAL RESEARCH BY: J. Mohanasundaram, MD, PhD
April 2013
May 2019
LATEST UPDATES BY: Oren Rabinowitz, MSc
December 2020