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Animal Studies
Chlorogenic acid (CGA), a coffee polyphenol attenuated oxidative-stress-induced brain injury and apoptosis by regulating oxidative stress-related Nrf2 pathway in a rat model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. Liu 2020
Orally administered green coffee bean water extract restored the cortical neurochemistry in male albino streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Al-Brakati 2020
Pretreatment with caffeic acid + caffeic acid phenylethyl ester before irinotecan therapy (used in colorectal cancer ) in humanized transgenic HtgUGT1A mice increased UGT1A expression and activity and SN-38 glucuronide excretion, improving leukopenia, intestinal oxidative stress and inflammation. Kalthoff 2020
Green Yemeni coffee powder dose-dependently decreased histopathological alterations and protected against oxidative stress induced by ochratoxin-A in the kidney, liver, and brain of rats. Nogaim 2020
In in vitro and in vivo animal models of the development of allergic diseases, trigonelline from coffee suppressed antigen-induced degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells, inhibited FceRI-mediated intracellular signaling pathways, and suppressed the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis response in mice. Nugrahini 2020
In a rat model of metabolic syndrome, feeding 5% spent coffee grounds improved glucose tolerance, structure and function of heart and liver, body weight and composition, systolic blood pressure, and concentrations of certain plasma lipids, and increased diversity of gut microbiota. Bhandarkar 2020
In a APP/PS2 transgenic mouse Alzheimer's disease model, chronic administration of 5-caffeoylquinic acid, a coffee polyphenol, improved cognitive function, reduced amyloid ß plaque formation and neuronal loss in the hippocampi, and modulated Aß clearance pathways. Ishida 2020
2-Pentadecyl-2-Oxazoline (PEA-OXA) found in green and roasted coffee beans ameliorated mild TBI-induced anxious, aggressive, and depressive-like behavior and impaired social interactions in mice. PEA-OXA normalized GABA changes in the prefrontal corex and acted as an a2 adrenergic antagonist. Boccella 2020
Low doses of systemic caffeine produced conditioned place preferences, while high doses produced aversions in male rats. Pharmacological blockade of dopamine receptors could block production of either preferences or aversions, depending upon which nucleus accumbens subregion they were injected. Yee 2020
Alveolar bone loss and gingival level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine were lower and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 translocation to the nucleus was higher in rats supplemented with 1.36% coffee compounds compared to the control group. Kobayashi 2020
A rodent model of caffeine addiction revealed differences in caffeine consumption level preferences among rats, with those consuming high levels showing the most compulsive-like intake patterns. Lee 2020
Investigated the subtypes of adenosine receptors involved in the effects of chronic caffeine intake on insulin sensitivities in male and female rats subjected to high-sucrose diet-induced insulin resistance. Sacramento 2020
Administration of green coffee extract to high-fat diet-induced obese rats reduced body weight, total serum cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol, and TNF-a, and lipid profile at doses between 10-40 mg/kg BW/day. Ilmiawati 2020
Administration of a combination of green coffee and green tea extract in a rat model of metabolic syndrome led to higher PPAR-a, and AMPK-a2 gene expression compared to rats receiving either green coffee or green tea extract alone or control. Lukitasari 2020
High-fat diet C57BL/6 mice given a high dose of AP-NHm, a food supplement mixture containing green coffee extract, dose-dependently gained less body weight, were protected from dyslipidemia, showed a lower liver weight and other non-alcoholic steatohepatitis-related pathologic features. Micheli 2020
The coffee diterpene kahweol at 120 µM reduced fat accumulation by 17% in Caenorhabditis elegans compared to the control, and was associated with a reduced food intake. Kahweol did not reduce fat in eat-2 mutants, which have a disrupted pharynx contraction rate. Farias-Pereira 2020
Ethanol binge drinking in young female Wistar rats reduced alveolar bone quality, with repercussion on alveolar bone size. This ethanol-induced alveolar bone deterioration was abrogated upon treatment with caffeine, but not with SCH58261, an antagonist of A2A receptors. Maia 2020
Pretreatment with chlorogenic acid, a phenolic acid in green coffee extract, attenuated cognitive impairment and displayed a neuroprotective effect against transient forebrain ischemia in gerbils. SOD2 and IL-4 expression levels were increased; 4-HNE production and IL-4 expressions were inhibited. Lee 2020
Single and combined administration of coffee/caffeine and ethanol dose dependently decreased sperm count in rats. The combination but not individual treatments was detrimental to sperm viability, motility, and morphology. Testosterone and LH levels especially decreased in combination group. Aprioku 2020
In a study of normal mice and global and forebrain A2AR KO mice, caffeine and SCH 58261, a selective A2AR antagonist, increased V?O2max, running power, and critical power, showing that A2AR antagonism is ergogenic. The effects of caffeine were abrogated in global and forebrain A2AR KO mice. Aguiar 2020
Treatment with 50 or 100 mg/kg green coffee (Coffea arabica) for 28 days ameliorated changes to testosterone, LH, and FSH, increased antioxidant markers, and decreased levels of lipid peroxides, nitric oxide, and pro-inflammatory markers in high-fat diet and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Al-Megrin 2020
Treatment with green coffee extract for 5 days dose-dependently lowered blood urea, creatinine, and potassium while enhanced sodium in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats compared to control. It elevated glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase, and reduced lipid peroxides. Bhattacharyya 2020
Neither caffeine nor green coffee extract (GCE) alleviated hepatic steatosis in lean female rats with high-fat/high-sugar induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, but GCE-treated rats showed lower hepatic triglyceride levels compared to the caffeine group. Velázquez 2020
Based on acute, subacute, and chronic effects of coffee infused with Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat ali) available on the Malaysian market in Sprague Dawley rats, the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for this commercial TA coffee was 1 g/kg bodyweight. Ahmad 2020
Assessed the nutritional value, safety, effects on biochemical biomarkers and excretion of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) of coffee silverskin extract in healthy rats. Hormone secretion, antioxidant or anti-inflammatory biomarkers were not affected and SCFAs were increased. Iriondo-DeHond 2019
No signs of acute toxicity were elicited by a single dose of green coffee oil (2000 mg/kg) in female rats. The main subacute findings showed body weight decrease at the highest dose without food consumption change, serum glucose and triglycerides levels decrease, and weight increase in liver. Oliveira 2019
In male mice subjected to severe whole body blast injury, chronic caffeine treatment alleviated traumatic brain injury but both chronic and acute caffeine treatment exacerbated lung-injuries and increased cumulative and time-segmented mortalities post-injury. Findings may have military relevance. Ning 2019
In a rat model of Alzheimer's disease, trigonelline pretreatment improved cognition and alleviated neuronal loss through suppressing oxidative stress, astrocyte activity, and inflammation and also through preservation of mitochondrial integrity. Fahanik-Babaei 2019
In vitro assessment of bioactivity of melanoidins isolated from an aqueous extract of Arabica silverskin. The high molecular weight fraction, composed mainly of dietary fiber, was administered to healthy male Wistar rats to evaluate in vivo fiber effect on gastrointestinal mobility. Tores de la Cruz 2019
In mice given a high fat diet (HFD), coffee prevented the HFD-induced decrease in the concentration of glutathione and ascorbic acid in the lens of the eye, which may slow metabolic-syndrome induced cataract formation. Coffee also reduced increases in body weight, cholesterol, and triglycerides. Nakazawa 2019
In an animal model of ADHD, acute pre-treatment and chronic treatment with caffeine modulated impulsive behavior. Caffeine showed the opposite effects on impulsive behavior depending on the length of treatment. Leffa 2019
Administration of a lightly roasted coffee extract dose to rats equivalent to moderate human daily coffee consumption exerted beneficial effects in all tissues, especially the brain, mainly by increasing reduced glutathione levels. Priftis 2019
Low-dose caffeine exposure favored visual cue discrimination and increased performance in a multicue discrimination task requiring focus and attention in zebrafish. Ruiz-Oliveira 2019
In female mice, administration of decaffeinated coffee along with a fat-, fructose-, and cholesterol-rich (FFC) diet reduced early signs of insulin resistance and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis compared to control, in part due to decaf coffee maintaining intestinal barrier function. Brandt 2019
Coffea arabica pulp aqueous extract had a cholesterol-lowering effect in in vitro and in vivo rat models via inhibition of intestinal cholesterol absorption by down-regulating NPC1L1 mediated LXRa activation and interfering with micellar complex formation. Ontawong 2019
Cafestol, a major coffee bean compound, prevented U-II-induced neonatal rat cardiomycyte hypertrophy through Nrf2/HO-1 activation and inhibition of redox signaling, resulting in cardioprotective effects. Hao 2019
In a rat model of Parkinson's disease, administration of caffeic acid or chlorogenic acid (found in coffee) prevented rotenone-induced neurodegeneration of both nigral dopaminergic and intestinal enteric neurons by enhancing the antioxidative properties of glial cells. Miyazaki 2019
Rats which consumed either green or ripe coffee showed a significant reduction in the percentage of visceral fat. No significant modifications were observed in glycemia, lipids, lactate dehydrogenase, ferric reducing ability of plasma, and ferric-xylenol orange. Bosso 2019
In ApoE-/- mice fed an atherogenic diet, a water-based standardized green coffee extract did not reduce atherosclerotic lesion progression or plasma lipid levels, but did improve metabolic parameters, modulated hepatic IL-6 and total serum IgM, and induced shifts in gut microbiota. Caro-Gómez 2019
Chlorogenic acid (a coffee constituent) decreased inflammation and fat deposition in the liver along with reduced plasma liver enzyme activities but did not change the plasma lipid profile in obese rats fed a high-carbohydrate/high-fat diet. Chlorogenic acid increased diversity of gut microbiota. Bhandarkar 2019
Long-term administration of caffeine in female rats with ovariectomy-induced postmenopausal osteoporosis effectively improved lipid profiles and increased the concentration of calcium in the serum. Medium- or high-dose treatment decreased activities of alkaline and acid phosphatases. Xu 2019
In APP/PS2 transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease, supplementation with coffee polyphenols for 5 months prevented cognitive deficits and reduced Aß plaque deposition via disaggregation of Aß. Ishida 2019
Administration of 4-Hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid was efficacious against high-fat diet-induced weight gain and hepatic steatosis, improved insulin sensitivity, and improved gut microbial community structure in mice. Benefits were ascribable to the metabolite of HMCA produced by gut microbiota. Ohue-Kitano 2019
Supplementation with decaffeinated coffee prevented high fat diet-induced NAFLD in mice by reducing hepatic fat deposition and metabolic derangement through modification of pathways underpinning liver fat oxidation, intestinal cholesterol efflux, energy metabolism and gut permeability. Vitaglione 2019
Analysis of the bioavailability and biological effects of 2- O-ß-d-glucopyranosyl-carboxyatractyligenin from Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora green coffees in Caenorhabditis elegans. Spanier 2019
Oral and IV caffeine administered to rats robustly increased operant responding for saccharin in a manner that was repeatable, reliable, and systematically related to unit IV dose. However, the relationship between oral caffeine dose and operant behavior was less systematic. Bradley 2019
Healthy mice administered 300 mg/kg caffeic acid for 30 days experienced lowered levels of 4-hydroxynonenal, an oxidative stress marker, in the hippocampus and fewer activated microglia compared to control. Koga 2019
In a mouse model of traumatic brain injury, kahweol (coffee diterpene) treatment reduced secondary brain injury and improved neurobehavioral outcomes, accompanied by reduction in immune responses. Lee 2019
In a rat model of type-2 diabetes, Arabica or Robusta instant coffee improved liver triglyceride and insulin levels, and reduced weight gain and liver steatosis. Robusta coffee more effectively reduced plasma adiponectin, total cholesterol, and HDL levels than Arabica or control. Shokouh 2019
In a rat model of post-traumatic stress syndrome, related depressive and anxiety-like behavior was aggravated by caffeine at doses of 20 and 30 mg/kg. Caffeine treated control animals also showed depressive, anxiety-like behavior and cognitive impairments. Prajapati 2019
Caffeine and nicotine, both alone and together, negatively affected the histological structure of the skeletal muscle tissue in adult male Wistar rats when injected into the diaphragm muscle. Alotaibi 2019
Cafestol at 60?µM reduced fat accumulation and increased locomotor activity in Caenorhabditis elegans compared to the control via DAF-12 dependent pathway. Farias-Pereira 2019
Green coffee bean extract, mulberry leaf extract, l-arabinose, and kidney bean extract demonstrated the strongest inhibition of postprandial glycemia in Wistar rats among tested plant-derived extracts. A 20-wk experiment in high-fat diet fed rats confirmed the hypoglycemic effect of their mixture. Jurgonski 2019
Treatment with Arabica coffee gayo bean and leaf extract led to a strong decrease in blood glucose levels compared to control in healthy mice. Martina 2019
Body weight, fasting serum glucose, and uric acid levels were reduced in high-fructose diet fed-rats treated with 213 or 284 mg/kg body weight/day of coffee compared to fructose control group. Fasting serum TG and LDL-C were also reduced at 284 mg/kg. Feyisa 2019
High daily doses of furan caused structural and endocrine alterations in male neonatal rats that compromised fertility. Furan is a colorless toxic organic compound present in various processed foods such as coffee. Rehman 2019
Caffeic acid (found in coffee) prevented the cartilage damage induced by IL-1ß in vivo organ culture of rat articular cartilage by inhibiting IL-1ß induced inflammation responses through suppression of NF-?B and MAPK related JNK signaling pathways. Huang 2018
Pretreatment with green coffee bean extract, either alone or combined with pioglitazone, exerted neuroprotective effects by alleviating insulin resistance and modulating brain insulin-signaling cascade in rats with fructose-induced Alzheimer's disease. Mohamed 2018
Supplementation with coffee increased skeletal muscle function and hypertrophy, likely by regulating the TGF-ß/myostatin - Akt - mTORC1, in mice fed a normal diet. Jang 2018
Long-term treatment with low-dose caffeine had a significant effect on most behavioral variables, especially those related to neophobia and other anxiety-like behaviors, emotionality, and cognitive flexibility, in 3xTg-AD and NTg mice, which were differently influenced. Baeta-Corral 2018
Hydroxyhydroquinone (HHQ) impaired fat utilization by reducing nitric oxide availability in mice. Protein S-nitrosylation reduction in liver cells after HHQ consumption may be associated with impaired fatty acid oxidation. Ishida 2018
Pre-treatment with light- or medium-roasted coffee extracts greatly ameliorated heptaic portal vein invasion and liver necrosis caused by exposure to lipopolysaccharide, in mice. Choi 2018
In a rat model of neuroinflammation, administration of trigonelline, a coffee component, diminished lipopolysaccharide-induced cognitive decline via suppression of hippocampal oxidative stress and inflammation and appropriate modulation of NF-?B/TLR4 and AChE activity. Khalili 2018
Type-2 diabetic mice implanted with microencapsulated, caffeine-stimulated advanced regulators (C-STAR)-equipped cells for caffeine-sensitive expression of glucagon-like peptide 1 showed substantially improved glucose homeostasis after coffee consumption compared to untreated mice. Bojar 2018
The RANKL expression was significantly increased, and the tissue calcium level was significantly decreased in male rats treated with green coffee bean extract, but not with Agiolax, for 2 mos by oral gavage, compared to the control group. Abbass 2018
4-Vinylcatechol (4VC), an aroma compound in roasted foods, especially coffee, demonstrated conflicting actions at 1-100?µM on rat thymic lymphocyte cells under oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxoide. Kishida 2018
In a spontaneous mouse model of metabolic syndrome, coffee and its components did not repair the related dysbiosis but rather caused additional changes in bacteria in 6 genera. Caffeine and chlorogenic acid, but not coffee, partially improved the disrupted plasma short-chain fatty acids profile. Nishitsuji 2018
In rats with experimental colorectal carcinogenesis, coffee, but neither decaffeinated coffee nor caffeine, decreased the development of dysplastic crypts. Decaffeinated coffee provided other mild chemoprotection. Coffee has other compounds that elicit greater chemoprotective effects than caffeine. Soares 2018
In 24 male rats fed a high-fat/high-fructose diet, administration of a combination of phenolic acids and trigonelline was not as effective as coffee per se in improving the components of Metabolic Syndrome. Shokouh 2018
In rats subjected to carrageenen-induced paw edema, an ointment prepared using a methanolic extract from green beans of Coffea robusta reduced edema through anti-inflammatory action confirmed by inmmunohistochemical evaluations. Pergolizzi 2018
Findings from two mouse models of Parkinson's disease showed that caffeine and eicosanoyl-5-hydroxytryptamide, a fatty acid derivative of serotonin found in coffee, have synergistic effects in protecting the brain against a-synuclein-mediated toxicity through maintenance of PP2A in an active state. Yan 2018
Dialyzed coffee extract beneficially influenced hepatic protein expression, within the threshold of physiological homeostasis, when injected into mice intraperitoneally. Yoon 2018
Pretreatment with trigonelline protected mice from lipopolysaccharide-mediated behavioral and memory disturbances and significantly decreased the oxidative stress and AChE levels in both the hippocampus and cortex. Chowdhury 2018
Results from rat studies show that chlorogenic acid protects against CCl4-induced acute liver injury probably through enhancing nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated anti-oxidant pathway and inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Shi 2018
Comparison of the effect of caffeine and nicotine alone or combined on the activation of 6 structures of the brain reward system, as modeled in rats. Kowiański 2018
In adult male rats, chronic caffeine consumption does not lead to persistent changes in functional availability of cerebral adenosine A1 receptors which have previously been associated with neuroprotective effects of caffeine. Nabbi-Schroeter 2018
In mice consuming decaffeinated coffee extract for 2 weeks experienced improved kidney excretion function. Details of activities of AMP deaminase, ecto5'-nucleotidase, adenosine deaminase, purine nucleoside phosphorylase were measured in kidney cortex and medulla. Rybakowska 2018
Caffeinated coffee and pure caffeine induce the heat shock response, a cytoprotective mechanism that promotes proteostasis and protects against stress, in Caenorhabditis elegans. This suggests caffeine may potentially benefit diseases of protein conformation such as Huntington's. Brunquell 2018
In mice subjected to UVB radiation for 3 days, oral administration of caffeic acid (CA) prevented dermatitis and pigmentation. Chlorogenic acid (CGA)did not have this effect. CA and CGA are coffee polyphenols. Yamate 2017
Exposure to coffee reduced putative tobacco carcinogen BaP-induced production of reactive oxygen species in vitro and in htgUGT1A-WT and -SNP mice. After UGT1A silencing by UGT1A-specific siRNA in cell culture, coffee-mediated reduction of ROS production was significantly impaired compared. Kalthoff 2017
Coffee intake significantly suppressed high-fat diet-induced metabolic alternations in mice. The coffee extract suppressed the adipogenesis-related events such as MCE and C/EBPß activation through the down-regulation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1). Maki 2017
In rats fed a high-fat/high-fructose diet to induce metabolic syndrome, a mixture of coffee nutraceuticals improved insulin sensitivity, especially in the short term, and exhibited hepatoprotective effects. Shokouh 2017
Eicosanoyl-5-hydroxytryptamide (EHT), a coffee bean component known to modulate serine/threonine protein phosphatase methylation, protected rodents from oligomeric beta-amyloid (Aβ)-induced impairments in both a radial-arm water maze and contextual fear conditioning task. Asam 2017
In rats subjected to punch skin wound incisions on their backs, topical treatment with various coffee oils led to systemic actions and faster wound healing than control. Lania 2017
Kahweol decreased hepatic fibrosis by inhibiting connective tissue factor expression in thioacetamide-treated mice, decreased the expression of transforming growth factor beta-stimulated type I collagen and CTGF expression in vitro, suggesting kahweol may be a candidate for treating liver fibrosis. Seo 2017
In rats subjected to streptozotocin-induced diabetes, administration of caffeine did not affect skeletal parameters. Folwarczna 2017
A nanoemulsion of coffee oil and algae oil was effective in mitigating skin damage in mice subjected to ultraviolet A, and in inhibiting melanoma cell growth in vitro. Mechanisms discussed. Yang 2017
Use of a Drosphilia fly model to investigate the difference between the effects of roasted coffee beans, explosion-puffed coffee beans, and decaffeinated coffee beans on locomotor activity and behavioral patterns. Ko 2017
In rats subjected to selenite-induced cataract formation, treatment with caffeinated coffee was associated with less severe central opacities and lower stage cataracts than controls, and affected the lens chaperone activity. Nakazawa 2017
A study investigating the anti-wrinkle effects of chlorogenic acid, pyrocatechol (PC) and 3,4,5-tricaffeoyl quinic acid isolated from Coffea arabica beans found that chlorogenic acid demonstrated potential as a preventative agent against damage in UV-B stimulated mouse fibroblast cells. Cho 2017
In male KKAy mice, supplementation with cafestol for 10 weeks lowered fasting plasma glucose and fasting glucagon, and improved insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion. Results show that cafestol possess antidiabetic properties in KKAy mice. Mellbye 2017
Treatment with coffee prevented the development of STZ-induced diabetes and suppressed hyperglycemia in STZ-diabetic mice. Caffeine or decaffeinated coffee did not significantly suppress STZ-induced hyperglycemia, suggesting the combination of caffeine with other components of coffee was key. Kobayashi 2017
In juvenile Wistar rats, oral gavage of 50 or 100mg/kg body weight of caffeine influenced the levels of GABA, dopamine, glutamate, and G-6-PDH in the brain. Effects were stronger than those caused by 200 or 500 mg/kg of cannabis. The combination of cannabis and caffeine raised G-6-PDH significantly. Owolabi 2017
In a mouse model approximating the daily consumption of 3 cups of coffee during pregnancy in humans, caffeine exposure caused detrimental effects on mouse brain development, as demonstrated by changes in the construction and activity of cortical networks. Fazeli 2017
Regular and decaffeinated coffee consumption decreased hepatic total mTOR and p-mTOR levels independently of Akt and AMPK pathways in aged mice. Decreased mTORC1 activity is known to have antiaging effects, so coffee consumption during old age may retard aging. Takahashi 2017
In a rat model of chronic bile duct ligation, coffee prevented liver cirrhosis by attenuating the oxidant processes, blocking hepatic stellate cell activation, and downregulating the main profibrotic molecules involved in extracellular matrix deposition. Arauz 2017
In an in vitro study on cholinergic, monoamiergic, and purinergic systems critical to neurodegeneration in a rat brain, caffeine, caffeic acid and their combinations exhibited inhibitory effects on activities of AChE, MAO, E-NTPase and E-NTDase, but stimulatory effects on Na+/K+ ATPase activity. Akomolafe 2017
In rats fed a high-fat-diet, the form of chlorogenic acids administered (purified extract, complexes of chlorogenic acids and β-cyclodextrin, and bread supplemented with either the extract or the β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex) influenced the therapeutic effect and bioavailability. Budryn 2017
Ferulic acid-4-O-sulfate, the main metabolite of ferulic acid, relaxed isolated mouse arteries ex vivo and reduced mean arterial pressure in anesthetized mice in vivo. Van Rymenant 2017
Results from studies in human skin fibroblasts and hairless mouse skin indicated that Coffea arabica extract exhibits antiphotodamage activity by inhibiting UV-induced oxidative stress and inflammation. Wu 2017
In Tsumura-Suzuki obese diabetic mice, coffee intake did not affect obesity and hyperlipidemia, but instead caused various degrees of improvement in the pancreatic beta cell damage and steatohepatitis with liver carcinogenesis. Watanabe 2017
Evaluation of how various antioxidant enzymes in rat macrophages were differently effected by various food components, including coffee extract. Bartenbacher 2017
Chlorogenic acid displayed not only corrective but also preventive effects in vitro in rat hepatocytes exposed to oxidative stress and could be beneficial in patients with or at risk of liver diseases. Saidi Merzouk 2017
Low concentrations of caffeine directly inhibit guinea pig pancreatic ductal fluid secretion stimulated by secretin or ACh and also ethanol-induced fluid hypersecretion. Caffeine intake may reduce the volume of pancreatic juice secretion. Mochimaru 2017
Hydroxyhydroquinone, generated during coffee bean roasting and also a metabolite of benzene, induced changes in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration and membrane potential of rat thymic lymphocytes, and may affect their cellular function. Kamae 2017
In rats with selenite-induced cataracts, 3 days of coffee intake ameliorated the reduction of glutathione and ascorbic acid concentrations. Roasting enhanced the preventive effect of coffee by further reducing cataract formation and ameliorating selenite-induced reduction of antioxidants. Ishimori 2017
Daily treatments of low doses of caffeine exerted a hepatoprotective effect against chronic liver damage in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-treated rats. Cachón 2017
Chlorogenic acid, a main polyphenol found in coffee, extended lifespan by up to 20.1%, delayed the age-related decline of body movement, and improved stress resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans. The possible mechanism of action was via DAF-16 in insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway. Zheng 2017
Investigation of the chemical composition, antioxidant activity of coffee bean residual press cake aqueous extract (AE). In an animal model of skin wound healing, AE improved healing, with green coffee AE demonstrating a superior result to roasted coffee AE. Affonso 2016
Administration of caffeic acid reduced the toxicity of acetaminophen overdose in rats, reducing liver injury, partly via inhibition of ERK1/2-mediated Egr1 transcriptional activation. Pang 2016
Results from evaluation of the effects of chlorogenic acid, caffeine, and coffee on components of the purinergic system from the cerebral cortex and platelets of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats suggest that chlorogenic acid and coffee may benefit diseases associated with hyperglycemia. Stefanello 2016
In a lipopolysaccharide-induced mouse model of depression, administration of coffee reduced immobility time in the tail suspension test and forced swimming test, and decreased inflammatory biomarkers associated with depression. This data provides evidence for antidepressant-like activities. Hall 2016
4-methylimidazole, a color compound naturally occurring in coffee, significantly inhibited cell proliferation of mouse 3T3-L1 cell line at highest concentration for 24 h and at all concentration for 48 h treatment time. It had no effect on plasmid DNA breaking in rat liver cells. Tazehkand 2016
Administration of chlorogenic acid complex from green coffee bean decreased triglycerides and free fatty acide levels in plasma and liver of rats with hyperlipidemia induced by a high-fat diet and led to the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase pathway. H V 2016
Caffeic acid, a phenolic and organic acid found in coffee, significantly rescued learning deficits and increased cognitive function in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease due to the suppression of oxidative stress and inflammation through the p38 MAPK signaling pathway. Wang 2016
In mice with high fat diet-induced obesity, green coffee bean extract treatment decreased body weight gain, liver weight, and white adipose tissue weights with regulation of adipose tissue lipolysis hormones. Choi 2016
In a model of accelerated aging in human keratinocytes and in Caenorhabditis elegans, coffee silverskin aqeuous extract (CSE) did not induce cytotoxicity. CSE protected skin cells from oxidative damage and increased longevity in nematodes. This activity was attributed to its antioxidant phenols. Iriondo-DeHond 2016
Topical application of an oil fraction or an ethanol extract of spent coffee grounds protected mouse skin from UVB-induced photoaging by down-regulating matrix metalloproteinases, leading to less wrinkle formation, collagen destruction, transdermal water loss, erythema formation, and other symptoms. Choi 2016
In a rat model of carrageenan (CAR)-induced hindpaw inflammation, 2-pentadecyl-2-oxazoline (PEA-OXA) from coffee beans was orally active in limiting histological damage and thermal hyperalgesia 6h after CAR intraplantar injection and the accumulation of infiltrating inflammatory cells. Impellizzeri 2016
Administration of a combined extract comprising cocoa, coffee, green tea, and garcinia in high-energy diet-induced obese rats stimulated lipid metabolism, mobilized fat from adipose tissue, and decreased liver lesions. Huang 2016
Trigonelline, a coffee alkaloid, differentially affected the skeletal system of rats with streptozotocin-induced metabolic disorders. It intensified the osteoporotic changes in streptozotocin-treated rats and improved bones in the non-hyperglycemic (nicotinamide/streptozotocin-treated) rats. Folwarczna 2016
Chlorogenic acid (CGA), abundant in plant-based foods as an ester of caffeic acid and quinic acid, supplementation improved mitochondria ultrastructure and decreased mitochondrial injury in rats with trinitrobenzene-sulfonic acid-induced colitis. Zhou 2016
The offspring of rats treated with caffeine during pregnancy and lactation experienced reduced osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. Reis 2016
Caffeine at concentrations found in human circulation after ingestion of one to two cups of coffee antagonized the endothelium-independent constriction of cerebral arteries in rats and mice evoked by ethanol concentrations found in blood during moderate-heavy alcohol intoxication. Chang 2016
A rat model of pain provided evidence that the noradrenergic system participates in cafestol and kahweol-induced peripheral antinociception with the release of endogenous noradrenaline. Cafestol and kahweol are diterpenes found only in the non-saponified lipid fraction of coffee. Guzzo 2016
Coffee inhibited NF-κB activity in human-derived prostate cancer cells (PC3) in vitro and in PC3 xenografts in athymic nude mice, and modulated transcription of genes related to prostate cancer and inflammation. Kolberg 2016
Rats who ingested caffeine displayed a significantly greater rate of tooth movement than the control. The caffeine group had significantly more TRAP(+) osteoclasts and higher RANKL expression in the compressed periodontium. Yi 2016
Compared the influence of daily consumption of some common beverages, including instant coffee, black tea, and hibiscus, on the development of sodium selenite-induced cataract in rats. Instant coffee was the most effective in modulating development, due to its co-phenol substances. El Okda 2016
Results from object discrimination testing in zebrafish suggested that continued use of high doses of caffeine cause cognitive impairment during withdrawal of the substance. Acute use of caffeine appeared to reverse harmful effects of alcohol withdrawal on learning. Santos 2016
In a zebrafish larvae model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, treatment with caffeine suppressed hepaptosteatosis by downregulation of genes associated with lipogenesis, ER stress, inflammatory response, and enhancement of lipid oxidation. Zheng 2015
Administration of an ethanol extract from spent coffee grounds effectively reduced UVB-induced wrinkle formation and recovered the level of collagen type I in hairless mice dorsal skin. It also significantly reduced transdermal water loss and erythema formation derived from UVB exposure.. Choi 2015
In rats subjected to a paw pressure test after induction of hyperalgesia, intraplantar injection of kahweol, a coffee diterpene, induced significant peripheral antinociception. This effect was mediated by the release of endogenous opioids. Guzzo 2015
In hampsters consuming a high-cholesterol diet, 6 weeks of treatment with a combined extract comprising cocoa, coffee, green tea, and garcinia reduced serum and hepatic lipid contents, increased fecal lipid excretion, and improved HOMA-IR and serum proinflammatory cytokine levels. Chang 2015
In male C57BL/6J mice subjected to a high-fat diet, treatment with fenugreek furostanolic saponins, green coffee bean extract with chlorogenic acids (70%), or their combination mitigated some aspects of insulin resistance but not all. Hua 2015
In adult ICR mice subjected to optic nerve crush-induced retinal ganglion cell death and treated intravitreally with coffee metabolities, chlorogenic acid and coffee metabolites reached the eye, where they significantly reduced apoptosis and thus prevented retinal degeneration. Jang 2015
Injection with dihydrocaffeic acid, a coffee component metabolite, in rats 0 and 2 hr after subjection to ischemia provided dose-dependent protection against ischemia-induced neuronal damage and brain edema. Lee 2015
Treatment with coffee components, trigonelline and chlorogenic acid, mitigated pancreatic islet damage, with the combination demonstrating synergistic effect, in zebrafish larval pancreatic islets and β-cells damaged by administration of alloxan. Nam 2015
While instant coffee extract with high chlorogenic acid content inhibited hepatic glucose-6-phosphotase in hepatocytes vitro, it failed to reduce glycemia when administered by IV in rats, likely because the chlorogenic acids did not reach high enough levels within rat hepatocytes. Bassoli 2015
Caffeine increased the heart rate in mice but did not impact cytokine responses or survival during the acute phase of a polymicrobial sepsis challenge. Bauzá 2015
Both the daily ingestion of coffee and the intraperitoneal administration of caffeine in rats delayed the alveolar bone reparative process after tooth extraction, and this effect was more aggressive when pure caffeine was used. Macedo 2015
High doses of caffeic, a phenolic acid present at high levels in coffee, slightly increased mineralization in the tibia and improved mechanical properties of the femoral diaphysis independently of the estrogen status in female rats. Folwarczna 2015
In a rat model of alcoholic liver fibrosis, treatment with caffeine significantly decreased ALT, AST, HA, LN, PIIINP and CIV levels and reversed liver fibrosis, likely via inhibition of the cAMP/PKA/CREB signal pathway through adenosine A2A receptors in hepatic stellate cells. Wang 2015
Chlorogenic acid (CGA), abundant in coffee, potently inhibited cultured rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation and DNA synthesis induced by hypoxia, in vitro. Chronic CGA treatment inhibited monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension in rats. Li 2015
Chlorogenic acid (CGA), the most abundant component in coffee, significantly blocked the development of diet-induced obesity in non-obese mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD), but did not affect body weight in obese mice. CGA curbed HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance. Ma 2015
Chlorogenic acid (CHA), an antioxidant polyphenol in coffee, attenuated dextran sulphate sodium-induced body weight loss, diarrhea, fecal blood, and shortening of colon and dramatically improved colitis histological scores in mice. Shin 2015
Coffee polyphenol extract (CPE) augmented gut-derived active GLP-1 secretion via the cAMP-dependent pathway in human enteroendocrine NCI-H716 cells. Oral administration of CPE increased diet induced active GLP-1 secretion and decreased glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide release in mice. Fujii 2015
Treatment with caffeine alters oxidative homeostasis in BALB/c mice, with both up and down regulation of oxidative burden observed. Pohanka 2014
In rats exposed to lead acetate, oral supplementation with 25/mg/kg bw/day of ferulic acid, a common phenolic acid in staple foods such as coffee, significantly alleviated some of the neurotoxic effects of lead. Lalith Kumar 2014
The combination of coffee components, chlorgenic acid and caffeine, suppressed fat accumulation and body weight gain by regulating the activities and mRNA and protein expression levels of hepatic lipid metabolism-related enzymes in mice. The combo was stronger than either component individually. Zheng 2014
Caffeic acid, a phenolic present in coffee, topically applied to dorsal mouse skin significantly suppressed tumor incidence and volume in a solar UV-induced skin carcinogenesis model. A431 cells expressing knockdown of ERK2 lost sensitivity to caffeic acid in a skin cancer xenograft mouse model. Yang 2014
In a rat model for Alzehimer's disease, supplementation with eicosanoyl-5-hydroxytryptamide, a minor component of coffee not related to caffeine, resulted in substantial amelioration of the defects associated with viral expression of the phosphoprotein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) endogenous inhibitor. Basurto-Islas 2014
Coffee consumption retarded weight gain and improved glucose tolerance in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes and corresponding controls. Coffee consumption did not affect enlarged islet size or parameters of beta-cell apoptosis, proliferation and insulin granule content in high-fat diet-fed mice. Rustenbeck 2014
Caffeine plus duloxetine group was better among the combination groups in terms of decrease in immobility and increase in norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin levels in hippocampi, cerebral cortices, and whole brain in depressed mice when compared to their respective monotherapy groups. Kale 2014
The cup of youth. Comment on: Coffee induces autophagy in vivo. [Cell Cycle. 2014][No abstract] Dumit 2014
Administration of trigonelline, an alkaloid present in coffee and fenugreek seed, worsened the mineralization and mechanical properties of cancellous bone in ovarectomized rats, but had no effect in non-ovarectomized rats. Folwarczna 2014
Supplementation with a minimum of 0.3% decaffeinated green coffee bean extract reversed high fat diet-induced fat accumulation and insulin resistance in mice by downregulating the genes involved in adipogenesis and inflammation in visceral adipose tissue. Song 2014
After consumption of coffee by mice, an increased in autophagic flux was observed in all investigated organs (liver, muscle, heart). Results indicated that coffee triggered 2 phenomena also induced by nutrient depletion: a reduction of protein acetylation coupled to an increase in autophagy. Pietrocola 2014
Coffee consumption in high-fat-fed rats was associated with decreased body weight, adiposity, liver triglycerides and energy intake, and alterations in gut microbiota. Despite a more favorable body composition, rats displayed profound systemic insulin resistance, likely due to caffeine. Cowan 2014
Determination of molecular mechanisms involved in the ameliorative effects of caffeinated, decaffeinated, and unroasted caffeinated green coffees on skeletal muscle gene expression profiles and their relationships in an obesity animal model. Jia 2014
In a mouse model of metabolic syndrome, chlorogenic acid from green coffee did not attenuate high fat diet-induced obesity, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, or systemic oxidative stress, nor did it protect against ex vivo oxidant-induced endothelial dysfunction. Li Kwok Cheong 2014
In a unilateral 6-OHDA model of Parkinson's disease in rats, treatment with caffeine exerted a neuroprotective effect as demonstrated in behavioral, neurochemical, histological, and immunohistochemical evaluations. Machado-Filho 2014
In rats with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon carcinogenesis, treatment with troxerutin, a flavonoid in coffee, significantly reversed pathological changes in the liver and colonic mucosa and alterations in the activities of biotransforming and bacterial enzymes. Vinothkumar 2014
A1AR+/+ mice offspring treated in utero with caffeine were 10% heavier than vehicle controls. In utero caffeine treatment decreased cardiac output by 11% and increased left ventricular wall thickness by 29% during diastole, and DNA methylation paterrns were altered in adult mice. Buscariollo 2014
In diabetic rats, treatment with chlorogenic acid prevented diabetes-induced TBARS production, improved memory, decreased anxiety, and prevented increase in aceytlcholinesterase, and overall was more effective than caffeine or coffee in preventing brain disorders promoted by diabetes mellitus. Stefanello 2014
In rats fed a high-fat diet, administration of decaffeinated espresso coffee increased liver expression of endoplasmic reticulum chaperones and antioxidant proteins, and prevented development of lobular inflammation or fibrosis of the liver. Salomone 2014
Administration of coffee to rats for 28 days increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes, and increased the total antioxidant capacity of hepatic tissue, without affecting the hepatic histoarchitecture. Vicente 2014
In vitro studies of transformed retinal ganglion (RGC-5) cells and in vivo studies in mice demonstrated that coffee and chlorogenic acid significantly reduce apoptosis of retinal cells induced by hypoxia and nitric oxide. Jang 2014
In rats with chemically-induced liver fibrosis and/or carcinogenesis, treatment with conventional coffee or 0.1% caffeine provided the most pronounced hepatoprotective effect against fibrosis, while instant coffee or 0.1% caffeine provided the most protection against liver carcinogenesis. Furtado 2014
In aged mice, treatment with coffee attenuated the decrease in the muscle weight and grip strength, increased the regenerating capacity of injured muscles, and decreased the serum pro-inflammatory mediator levels compared to controls. Guo 2014
In mice with cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression, treatment with the alcoholic extract of coffee seed modulated cellular immune function. Rafiul Haque 2013
Ingestion of coffee polyphenols suppressed cholesterol accumulation in the plasma, liver, and vascular system of zebrafish, likely via downregulation of cholesterol and lipoprotein synthesis and upregulation of bile acid synthesis in the liver. Meguro 2013
Pre-treatment with coffee reduced formation of pre-neoplastic hepatic foci and DNA migration in rats exposed to aflatoxin B₁. Induction of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase contributed to the chemopreventive effects of coffee. Ferk 2013
Comment on: Caffeine stimulates hepatic lipid metabolism by the autophagy-lysosomal pathway in mice. [Hepatology. 2014] [No abstract] Ray 2013
Influence of coffee (Coffea arabica) and galacto-oligosaccharide consumption on intestinal microbiota and the host responses have been studied in mice which revealed significant decrease in E. coli and Clostridium spp. counts, but increased Bifidobacterium spp. Nakayama 2013
The decaffeination process has caused a relative increase in total phenols and chlorogenic acids. However the decaffeinated coffee drinks were unable to change the lipid profile or the hemostatic and hematological parameters in hyperlipidemic rats. Silvério 2013
A study on the effects of polyphenols purified from coffee (CPP)) in C57BL/6J mice showed that CPP modulates whole-body substrate oxidation by suppressing postprandial hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia, and these effects are mediated by inhibiting digestive enzymes. Murase 2012
The organic coffee showed higher levels of chlorogenic acid, caffeine and trigonelline than conventional, however, this difference did not significantly affect behavior in Wistar rats. Carvalho 2011
It is shown that the degree of roasting of coffee correlates with the efficiency of dampening inflammation-induced NF-kappaB activity and inducing antioxidant defense through Nrf2/EpRE activity. Paur 2010
Coffee exerts protective effects against liver fibrosis in SD rats via antioxidant action and the suppression of fibrogenic cytokines, transforming growth factor -beta and platelet-derived growth factor -beta. Shin 2010
The roasted coffee bean aroma changes the mRNA and protein expression levels of the rat brain, providing first time clues of the potential antioxidant or stress relaxation activities of the coffee bean aroma. Seo 2008
Long-term caffeine (the active principle alkaloid of coffee) consumption reduced the IN VIVO Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) tumor growth and reversed EAC-induced suppression of the innate immune response in adult mice. Mandal 2008
The effect of green coffee bean extract (GCBE) on fat accumulation and body weight of mild obese mice was assessed. Results suggest that GCBE is possibly effective against weight gain and fat accumulation by inhibition of fat absorption and activation of fat metabolism in the liver. Shimoda 2006
Caffeine administration and its withdrawal on pilocarpine- and kainate-induced seizures in rats did not show significant difference in seizure profile that could stem from either caffeine administration or its withdrawal. Hoexter 2005
A rat study was carried out to apply an activity-guided screening procedure for coffee brew to identify a key chemopreventive compound by means of in vitro antioxidant tests & cell culture experiments & to prove the in vivo activity of that compound by an animal feeding experiment. Somoza 2003
The biological effect of Coffea cruda 30c was investigated in rats pre & post treated with caffeine. Results show that Coffea cruda 30c modifies sleep pattern increasing sleep intensity with pre-treatment. Ruiz-Vega 2003
Investigation of the effects of Coffea cruda 30 and 200c and caffeine on the sleep pattern of rats shows Coffea 30c and caffeine have similar effects on sleep pattern, enhancing delta power; Coffea cruda 200c appears to affect only the synchronization. Ruiz-Vega 2002
Evaluation of the prophylactic and therapeutical effect of a 30%-extract from the coffee-bean seeds C. arabica on infectious diseases in newborn calves proved effective together with oral drugs containing tannic substances and diet-feed. [Article in German] Ponepal 1996
The effect of coffee total lipids, coffee non-saponifiable matter and coffee diterpene alcohols extracted from Coffea arabica beans on serum cholesterol in adult male Syrian hamsters was examined which showed that coffee lipids may be hypercholesterolaemic. Ratnayake 1995
History of Record
ORIGINAL RESEARCH BY: J. Mohanasundaram, MD, PhD
April 2013
May 2019
LATEST UPDATES BY: Oren Rabinowitz, MSc
December 2020