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Safety Data
Adverse Effects & Toxicity
Meta-analysis of 26 studies indicated that consumption of caffeine and coffee during pregnancy seems to increase the risk of pregnancy loss in a dose-dependent manner. Li 2015
Report of a case of proctocolitis in a healthy patient after coffee enema treatment. Lee 2020
A StatPearls review of evidence for the risk of caffeine toxicity. Lethal doses of caffeine have been reported at blood concentrations of 80 to 100 micrograms/ml which can be reached with ingestion of approximately 10 grams or greater. Murray 2020
Moderate (200-400 mg/day) and high consumption (>400 mg/day) was associated with 3-fold and 2-fold increases in the odds of Caffeine Use Disorder and of withdrawal, respectively, with women and current smokers at a higher risk, according to a online cross-sectional survey of 2379 New Zealand adults. Booth 2020
Coffee samples collected from the Tehran market contained the highest mean concentration of acrylamide of any food products tested (549 µg/kg). Dietary exposure distribution and related potential risk are investigated. Nematollahi 2020
Summarized exposures to and emissions of volatile organic compounds, including diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione, in 17 coffee roasting and packaging facilities that included 10 cafés. LeBouf 2020
A review of evidence investigating the relationship between caffeine, seizures, epilepsy, and anti-seizure drugs found no evidence to advise people with epilepsy against the use or overuse of caffeine. Bauer 2019
Ochratoxin A, a mycotoxin found in coffee, induced oxidative stress in human hepatocytes Hep G2 cells through the phase I reaction regulated by aryl hydrocarbon receptor and induced apoptosis; the phase II reaction was activated by NF-E2-related factor 2 in the presence of oxidative stress. Shin 2019
In vitro safety assays of coffee compound, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA, and its metabolites revealed no significant adverse effects or significant interactions during profiling assays against 38 major targets. Amano 2019
After quantitative assessment of the risk of esophageal cancer from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure from mate, tea, and coffee, it was determined that it is the hot temperature and not the PAH exposure that may pose a cancer risk. Okaru 2018
Meta-Analysis Shows Coffee Consumption is Generally Safe. Comment on: Coffee consumption and health: umbrella review of meta-analyses of multiple health outcomes. [No abstract] Rosenberg 2018
A cross-sectional study of adults investigated the diagnostic criteria for Caffeine Use Disorder (CUD). The level of CUD is influenced by the type and quantity of caffeine consumption. Ágoston 2018
Analysis using gas chromatography mass spectrometry combined with survey data indicated that the mean and high level daily consumption of acrylamide from Lebanese coffee and espresso was found to be higher than the intake threshold for carcinogenicity and neurotoxicity as set by the WHO. El-Zakhem Naous 2018
A systematic review of fatal cases in which caffeine has been recognized as the only cause of death in order to identify potential categories at risk. Cappelletti 2018
A study estimating hypothetical long-term dietary exposure to acrylamide of the Japanese people found that coffee was among the major dietary sources contributing to long-term acrylamide exposure. Kawahara 2018
Review of evidence regarding caffeine toxicity. Murray 2018
Case reports of 5 episodes of liver injury in 4 patients associated with the consumption of different commercially available "fat burner" supplements containing herbs such as Green tea extract (Camellia sinensis), Garcinia gummi-gutta, green coffee beans, and spirulina (blue-green algae). Gavrić 2018
Data from the application of the Ames Salmonella mutagenicity test indicated that Americano coffees served by 5 international coffee chain restaurants posed a low mutagenic risk to consumers. Liu 2017
An overview of diagnostic and therapuetic recommendations for patients with nocturia noted that patients should avoid coffee intake. Miotla 2017
While roasted coffee beans naturally generate alpha-diketones during roasting, roasting and grinding, with adequate building ventilation and typical roasted bean handling and grinding, appears to generate very low, if any, concentrations of diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione in workers' breathing zones. McCoy 2017
During safety testing of coffee silverskin extract (CSE), treatment of HepG2 cells with CSE did not induce either cytotoxicity or genotoxicity. In HepG2 cells pretreated with B(a)P, CSE inhibited genotoxicity induced by B(a)P, likely due to the chlorogenic acid content. Iriondo-DeHond 2017
Reviewed research into the safety and safe doses of ingested caffeine in healthy and in vulnerable populations. For some vulnerable populations, caffeine consumption could be harmful, including impairments in cardiovascular function, sleep, and substance use. Temple 2017
Historical overview of the occupational effects of diacetyl and obliterative bronchiolitis. Alpha-dicarbonyl-related lung disease has been found in flavoring manufacturing workers, other food production workers, diacetyl manufacturing workers, and coffee production workers. Kreiss 2017
A German cross-sectional study of 7698 subjects aged 11-17 yrs found that coffee consumption could be an important risk factor for insomnia complaints in adolescents, and it significantly affected the association of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana with insomnia. Skarupke 2017
Systematic review of data on potential adverse effects of caffeine consumption published from 2001 to June 2015. Results characterized safe levels in healthy adults, healthy pregnant women, child/adolescent populations, and other sensitive populations. Wikoff 2017
In mice, in utero caffeine exposure has long-term effects into adulthood and prenatal caffeine exposure can exert adverse transgenerational effects on adult cardiac function. Fang 2016
The shear bond strength of acrylic teeth to heat-polymerized denture base resins was not significantly affected by tested solutions, except for Biolux teeth immersed in coffee. Neppelenbroek 2016
Ex-vivo study of single-rooted, unpolished teeth found coffee to be the most erosive of commonly consumed hot beverages tested. Jameel 2016
Sixty seconds on . . . Coffee and cancer. [No abstract] Hawkes 2016
Case report of a patient with psychosis, depression and benign prostatic hyperplasia, who developed black hairy tongue, which may be triggered by excessive coffee, following treatment with a fixed dose combination of olanzapine and fluoxetine and recovered within 3 mos after withdrawal of treatment. Jhaj 2016
At a coffee processing facility producing both unflavored and flavored coffee, the grinding and packaging of unflavored coffee generated simultaneous exposures to diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione in excess of the NIOSH proposed RELs, indicating these workers were at risk of obliterative bronchiolitis. Duling 2016
Data from a population-based birth cohort including 7,857 mothers and their children suggested that high levels of maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy are associated with adverse offspring growth patterns and childhood fat distribution. Voerman 2016
Malabsorption of L-T4 Due to Drip Coffee: A Case Report Using Predictors of Causation. [No abstract] Wegrzyn 2016
While it was found to be a novel potential UV-B absorbent, safety testing of unsaponifiable matter from green coffee oil demonstrated relevant cytotoxicity against keratinocytes in vitro and in the brine shrimp assay. Wagemaker 2016
A pilot study (n=30) on a weight management supplement, Carbopol matrix tablets, containing vit D3 and extracts of banaba leaf, green coffee bean, and Moringa oleifera leaf reported no adverse effects or changes in blood chemistry that would indicate safety concerns. Stohs 2016
Systematic review and meta-analysis of 14 prospective studies (130,456 participants and 3,429 cases) indicated that for each 100 mg/day increment in maternal caffeine intake, there was a 7% higher risk of pregnancy loss. Possible confounding influences discussed. Chen 2016
Cross-sectional study in current coffee processing workers revealed increased occupational lung morbidity, evidenced by increase risk of dyspnea and obstruction and reduced expiratory volumes compared to workers without exposure to coffee flavoring or grinding/packaging of unflavored coffees. Bailey 2015
The spectrum of tumors in rodents given acrylamide was similar to the effects of glycidamide given to the same strains of rodents. The model demonstrated that acrylamide (found in roasted coffee) is metabolized to glycidamide, and the carcinogenic activity of acrylamide is due to its conversion. Beland 2015
An investigation into the impact of maternal lifestyle during pregnancy in Northwest China found that coffee consumption during pregnancy was positively correlated with the burden of specific birth defects, such as such as cardiovascular system and genital organs. Pei 2015
A systematic review and meta-analysis of 12 case-control studies (3649 cases and 5707 controls) found high maternal coffee consumption was positively associated with acute lymphoblastic and acute myeloid leukemias in offspring. Thomopoulos 2015
Does coffee during pregnancy harm the baby? [No abstract][Article in German] [No authors listed] 2015
Prospective data from 2172 acute coronary syndrome patients from Greek hospitals showed that consumption of 1-2 cups of coffee daily increased 10-year cardiovascular disease incidence among Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) patients compared to abstainers. Notara 2015
Characterization of diacetyl exposure that would plausibly occur in a small coffee shop during the preparation and consumption of unflavored coffee. The values exceeded recommended occupational exposure limits and are comparable to those in various food and beverage production facilities. Pierce 2015
Airborne concentrations of naturally occurring diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione associated with roasting and grinding unflavored coffee beans are similar to those in food flavoring facilities, may exceed some recommended exposure limits, but are below levels expected to cause respiratory responses. Gaffney 2015
Results from investigation of the occurrence of chlorinated byproducts of bisphenol A and nonylphenol in bleached food contacting papers showed that these chemicals can migrate from coffee filters into coffee solution during preparation. Zhou 2015
Identification of two further coffee proteins from green coffee bean dust to be type I coffee allergens (Cof a 2 and Cof a 3). Peters 2015
A cross-sectional study of 250 women aged 20-42 years found that 60% of women preparing for IVF or ICSI fertility treatment did not change consumption of caffeinated beverages in preparation for fertility treatment. Coffee intake appeared unrelated to treatment outcomes. Gormack 2015
Presented 2 cases that show the ability of caffeine to induce psychotic and manic symptoms and reviewed literature on caffeine-induced psychiatric manifestation. Not only may caffeine may be related to de-novo psychotic or mood symptoms but it may also aggravate pre-existing disorders. Wang 2015
In a questionnaire and assessment of gastroparesis patients, coffee was among several foods commonly identified as worsening symptoms. Wytiaz 2015
A post-hoc analysis of the LEGEND study of patients with GERD utilized patient-reported questionnaires to evaluate reflux and dyspeptic symptoms before and after administration of lansoprazole. "Drinking coffee almost daily" was commonly reported as a lifestyle factor for GERD symptoms. Haruma 2015
Neither pure green coffee oil (GCO) or its formulations showed cytotoxic effects in concentrations up to 100 μg mL(-1). Cosmetic formulations containing 15% GCO used by human volunteers and in vitro in human keratinocytes were safe for topical application and showed good skin compatibility. Wagemaker 2015
High coffee consumption is among the nongenetic dietary risk factors associated with increased risk of exfoliation syndrome (the most common cause of secondary open angle glaucoma). Dewundara 2015
Coffee, tea, and chocolate after microsurgery: why not? [No abstract] Zelken 2015
Summary of a workshop convened by the Institute of Medicine in August 2013 reviewing evidence on safe levels of caffeine consumption in foods, beverages, and dietary supplements, particularly by vulnerable populations. [No authors listed] 2014
Review summarized case studies, diagnostics, pathophysiology, and treatment of adrenergic urticaria. Coffee is known to be a trigger based on data from the 10 reported cases of adrenergic urticaria since 1985. Hogan 2014
A case report of a 44-year-old woman diagnosed with rhabdomyolysis induced by excessive coffee drinking. Chiang 2014
A cross-sectional analytical study in 310 Colombian patients with systemic lupus erythematosus found coffee consumption to be positively associated with the risk of cardiovascular disease. Amaya-Amaya 2013
A case report of a fatal caffeine overdose in a 39-year-old man resulting from the self-administered ingestion of approximately 12 g of pure caffeine anhydrous. Autopsy blood caffeine levels were 350 mg/L. Jabbar 2013
Study reveals risk of heavy coffee drinking in those younger than 55. [No abstract] [No authors listed] 2013
Review of producers and important dietary sources of ochratoxin A and citrinin noted that ochratoxin A is frequently found in coffee. Ostry 2013
It was found that consumption of coffee husks was toxic to horses due to the high levels of caffeine present in their composition. Therefore, coffee husks pose a risk when used as bedding or as feed for horses. Delfiol 2012
The allergenicity of native green coffee bean extracts was analyzed by ImmunoCAP in sera of 17 symptomatic coffee workers. A class III chitinase of C. arabica was identified as the first known coffee allergen Cof a 1& may have a relevant potential for the specific diagnosis of coffee sensitization. Manavski 2012
A cross-sectional study conducted in a Tanzanian coffee curing factory to study dust exposure and inflammatory reactions in the respiratory tract among coffee curing workers in Tanzania indicate a relationship between the coffee dust and signs of respiratory inflammation. Moen 2012
[Coffee and muscle cramps.] Voermans 2011
Evaluated the safety of CoffeeBerry products in 3 genotoxicity studies, 3 short-term oral toxicity studies and a 90-day dietary toxicity study. Bacterial mutagenicity studies and a micronucleus test using murine peripheral cells showed none of the 3 products had mutagenic or genotoxic potential. Heimbach 2010
A multiplex-PCR method for detection of Aspergillus carbonarius, A. niger & A. ochraceus species in coffee beans was developed. They were recognized as the species responsible for ochratoxin A, which is a nephrotoxic & carcinogenic mycotoxin found in cereal &food commodities. Sartori 2006
The review describes and discusses the respective literature on environmental and occupational factors linked to carcinogenesis in bladder cancer. For several reasons, the potential effects of tea and coffee consumption are also considered. Goebell 2004
History of Record
ORIGINAL RESEARCH BY: J. Mohanasundaram, MD, PhD
April 2013
May 2019
LATEST UPDATES BY: Oren Rabinowitz, MSc
December 2020