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Scientific Name:
Acacia senegal (syn. Senegalia senegal), A. seyal (syn. Vachellia seyal)
Family Name:
Common Name:
gum acacia, Acacia gum, gum arabic
Evidence for Efficacy (Human Data)
Clinical Trials
A meta-analysis of 46 randomized controlled trials (N=2685) of different soluble dietary fibers identified gum arabic as the most effective fiber in regard to cholesterol and HDL cholesterol levels in type 2 diabetics. Juhász 2023
A systematic review of 29 clinical trials conducted on the efficacy of gum arabic in therapeutic applications found it being effective in altering lipid profiles, plaque, gingival scores, blood pressure, adiposity, and in the treatment of sickle cell anemia, rheumatoid arthritis, periodontitis, gastrointestinal conditions, metabolic disorders, and kidney diseases. Al-Jubori 2023
In a randomized, single-blind, crossover study (N=30), co-administration of 15 g acacia gum did not significantly affect iron absorption from a 100 mg ferrous fumarate supplement in iron-depleted women. Giorgetti 2022
In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial (N=60), application of a gum arabic powder twice daily for 30 days significantly reduced gingival index scores, at 30 and 60 days improved plaque index scores, and at 60 days significantly reduced gingival crevicular fluid interleukin-1β levels in patients with plaque-induced gingivitis. Gafar 2022
In a randomized controlled trial (N=10), gum arabic showed similar effects on glycemia to psyllium husk, with far fewer side effects, but did not greatly delay mouth-to-cecum transit in female subjects with mild-to-moderate symptomatic gastroparesis. Suresh 2021
In a phase II trial (N=40), gum arabic (30 g daily, as a single dose, for 12 weeks) decreased the levels of sodium, urea, and liver enzymes (apart from alkaline phosphatase) while increasing serum albumin, with non-significant changes in creatinine and potassium concentrations in subjects with rheumatoid arthritis. Kamal 2021
In a randomized trial (N=40), acacia gum fiber supplementation in orange juice with a bagel and cream cheese meal dose-dependently significantly enhanced satisfaction and fullness at 15 and 240 min and decreased hunger at 30 min in healthy subjects after a 12 h fast, with marked variation in individual postprandial glucose responses. Larson 2021
In a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled study (N=80), daily supplementation with 20 g of gum arabic for 12 weeks significantly decreased systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fat-free body mass, energy and carbohydrate consumption, and fasting plasma glucose, as well as improved self-perceived bloating and appetite in subjects with or at risk of metabolic syndrome. Jarrar 2021
In a randomized controlled study (N=63), use of a gum arabic mouthwash significantly decreased DMF scores and showed antibacterial effects against salivary Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus after 9 and 12 months of treatment, compared to a chlorhexidine wash. Kamal 2020
A protocol is presented for quadruple-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase II and III clinical trials on the efficacy of powdered gum arabic (Acacia senegal) as an immunomodulatory agent for the control of cytokine levels in COVID-19 patients. Kaddam 2020
In a phase II clinical trial (N = 40), oral administration of gum arabic from Acacia senegal (30 g/day for 12 weeks) significantly improved blood total antioxidant capacity and decreased the levels of malondialdehyde and C-reactive protein in end-stage renal failure hemodialysis patients. Ali 2020
In a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial (N=81), administration of Hab-o Shefa, a Persian herbal formula consisting of Datura stramonium, Rheum palmatum, Zingiber officinale, and Acacia senegal, significantly reduced opioid-positive urine tests and self-reported opioid use along with craving, depression. and anxiety in subjects with opioid dependence. Moosavyzadeh 2020
In a phase II clinical trial (N=40), administration of gum arabic (30 g/day) for 12 weeks resulted in significant decreases in serum TNF-α, ESR, and number of swollen and tender joints in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Kamal 2018
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (N=91), supplementation for 3 months (30 g/day) with gum arabic (Acacia Senegal) significantly reduced visceral adiposity index by 23.7% and systolic blood pressure by 7.6%, with no effect on waist-to-hip ratio, in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Babiker 2018
A systematic review of 17 clinical trials on the efficacy of different types of fiber supplements for weight control found gum arabic being one of the few types of fiber that elicited reductions in body weight and energy intake without other dietary interventions, although the effects were not considerable from the clinical point of view. Namazi 2017
In a randomized study (N=36), supplementation with gum arabic (10-40 g daily for 4 weeks) significantly decreased serum C-reactive protein levels even at the lowest dose in patients with chronic kidney disease. Elamin 2017
In a phase II clinical trial (N=47), administration of gum arabic (30 g/day) for 12 weeks significantly increased total antioxidant capacity and decreased levels of oxidative markers malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide in patients with sickle cell anemia. Kaddam 2017
In a controlled study in patients with hyperlipidemia (N=110), addition of gum arabic (30 mg/day) to atorvastatin therapy for 4 weeks significantly decreased total cholesterol (25.9 vs. 7.8%), triglycerides (38.2 vs. 2.9%), and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (30.8 vs. 8.1%) with no significant effect on HDL levels compared to atorvastatin alone. Mohamed 2015
A fiber blend containing fructo-oligosaccharides, inulin, gum acacia, and pea fiber delayed in-vitro fermentation, compared to fructo-oligosaccharides or inulin alone, while increasing short chain fatty acid production by gut bacteria in human subjects. Koecher 2014
In a randomized placebo-controlled study in subjects with fecal incontinence, consumption for approximately 3 weeks of gum arabic did not increase degradation of gut microbes by fecal bacteria. Bliss 2013
In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial (N=120), ingestion of 30 g/day of gum arabic for 6 weeks induced significant reductions in body mass index and fat percentage (2.18%) in healthy women, indicating potential in the treatment of obesity, with side effects including early morning nausea, mild diarrhea, and bloating abdomen only during the first week. Babiker 2012
In a randomized controlled trial (N=60), treatment for 4 weeks with gum acacia (Acacia senegal) as a protective barrier significantly reduced peristomal inflammation severity in children with double barrel colostomy compared to a zinc sulfate ointment. Hosseinpour 2012
A controlled human trial found dose-dependent significant reductions in caloric intake associated with increased satiety levels induced by administration of 5-40 g of two different blends of gum arabic (EmulGold® or PreVitae®) for 3 hours following consumption. Calame 2011
A placebo-controlled human trial (N=189) of gastrointestinal symptoms associated with dietary fiber intake in adults with fecal incontinence found a gum arabic supplement providing 16 g fiber per day to be well tolerated. Bliss 2011
In a randomized, double-blind, crossover study (N=21), daily ingestion for 5 weeks of standardized drinks with 28 g acetogenic fibers (acacia gum and pectin) did not decrease lipolysis but improved fasting endogenous glucose turnover with no effects on peripheral insulin resistance, fasting plasma glucose, or insulin in metabolic syndrome patients. Pouteau 2010
In a controlled study, administration of gum arabic (EmulGold, 5, 10, 20 or 40 g daily for up to 4 weeks) increased the stool counts of beneficial microorganisms belonging to Bifidobacteria, Lactobacilli, and Bacteroides in healthy volunteers, with the optimal dose being around 10 g, at which the treatment performed better than inulin (positive control). Calame 2008
In a randomized double-blind trial (N=20), a prebiotic mixture composed of 50% fructooligosaccharide and 50% gum acacia improved abdominal discomfort elicited by the fructooligosaccharides alone, including symptoms such as belching and rectal urgency, with strong sex differences reported for self-reported general well-being. Goetze 2008
In a 3-month, randomized, controlled trial (N=46), oral administration of gum arabic (50 g/day) from Acacia senegal in conjunction with a low-protein diet with or without added iron and folic acid decreased serum urea, creatinine, and uric acid levels and increased serum calcium, while decreasing serum phosphorus levels, in patients with chronic renal failure on hemodialysis. Ali 2008
In a randomized placebo-controlled trial (N=121), use of a dietary supplement containing fish oil, fructooligosaccharides, gum arabic, vitamin E, vitamin C, and selenium for 6 months supported a decrease in the dose of prednisone required to control the symptoms in patients with ulcerative colitis. Seidner 2005
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter study (N=144), addition of a mixture of non-digestible carbohydrates (including 19% gum arabic) to the hypotonic oral rehydration solution was ineffective in reducing the duration of acute non-cholera diarrhea in boys with mild-to-moderate dehydration. Hoekstra 2004
Dietary fibre supplementation with psyllium or gum arabic reduced incontinent stools and improved stool consistency in community living adults [No abstract] Comment on Supplementation with dietary fiber improves fecal incontinence. Bliss DZ, Jung HJ, Savik K, Lowry A, LeMoine M, Jensen L, Werner C, Schaffer K. Nurs Res. 2001 Jul-Aug;50(4):203-13. doi: 10.1097/00006199-200107000-00004. Campbell 2002
Dietary fiber supplementation with psyllium or gum arabic reduced fecal incontinence in community-living adults [No abstract] Comment on Supplementation with dietary fiber improves fecal incontinence. Bliss DZ, Jung HJ, Savik K, Lowry A, LeMoine M, Jensen L, Werner C, Schaffer K. Nurs Res. 2001 Jul-Aug;50(4):203-13. doi: 10.1097/00006199-200107000-00004. Korula 2002
In a randomized placebo-controlled study (N=39), supplementation with dietary fiber from psyllium or gum arabic decreased stool incontinence and improved stool consistency in community living adults. Bliss 2001
In a randomized controlled study (N=110), supplementation with a 4:1 mixture of gum arabic and pectin (0-15 g) in apple juice for 12 weeks did not significantly affect serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in hypercholesterolemic men and women, with apple juice possibly inducing a hypercholesterolemic effect. Davidson 1998
Apple fiber and gum arabic lowers total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in men with mild hypercholesterolemia [No abstract] Mee 1997
A 6-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (N=51) on the effects of water-soluble dietary fiber on cholesterol levels in hypercholesterolemic men and women used gum acacia as an inactive control. Jensen 1997
In a single-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial (N=16), supplementation with gum arabic fiber (50 g/d) significantly increased Fecal bacterial mass and fecal nitrogen excretion while lowering serum urea nitrogen concentrations in patients with chronic renal failure on a low-protein diet. Bliss 1996
In a randomized clinical trial (N=29), consumption of a water-soluble dietary fiber from acacia gum (5 g three times/day for 4 weeks) did not change any plasma lipid parameters in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Jensen 1993
In a randomized double-blind study, Acacia gum consumed for 4 weeks as the sole or primary source of water-soluble dietary fiber (up to 15 g/day) did not produce a significant lipid-lowering effect in healthy men and women compared to placebo. Haskell 1992
An evaluation of gastrils: a gum-acacia based antacid [No abstract] McAndrew 1968
History of Record
January 2023
June 2023