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Scientific Name:
Acacia senegal (syn. Senegalia senegal), A. seyal (syn. Vachellia seyal)
Family Name:
Common Name:
gum acacia, Acacia gum, gum arabic
Evidence of Activity
Animal Studies
Combined oral administration for 4 weeks of acacia gum and Folium mori with or without metformin decreased plasma glucose, improved glycated hemoglobin, insulin, fructosamine, and liver and kidney damage marker levels in a rat model of diabetes. El-Shafei 2023
Gum arabic (Acacia senegal) alleviated testicular damage, reduced sperm abnormalities, and increased serum testosterone and luteinizing hormone levels in a rat model of cisplatin-induced infertility. Nofal 2023
Arabic gum significantly increased body weight, decreased serum glucose levels, increased insulin levels, exerted an anti-inflammatory effect, and ameliorated pancreatic tissue changes in a rat model of diabetes. Ibrahim 2023
A gum arabic nanoemulsion administered via oral gavage for 10 days reversed the neurological abnormalities induced by bromobenzene, an environmental contaminant, in the hippocampal region of rats. Almohaimeed 2022
Hydromethanolic crude extract of Acacia seyal roots and two of its fractions significantly delayed the onset of castor oil-induced diarrhea and reduced the weight and volume of the intestinal contents in a mouse model. Mengesha 2022
Rectal administration of gum arabic in combination with basil seeds significantly ameliorated morphological and histopathological signs, inflammation, and oxidative stress in a rat model of ulcerative colitis. Bejeshk 2022
Pre-treatment with gum arabic, administered in the drinking water for 2-4 weeks or intravenously 2 h before sacrifice, significantly reduced infarct size and cardiac enzymes in a rat model of heart ischemia/reperfusion injury. Administration at the time of reperfusion did not protect against cardiac damage. Gouda 2022
A study with rats provides preliminary evidence that oral administration of gum arabic may reverse the oxidative damage, inflammation, and apoptosis induced by aflatoxin B1 exposure. Ahmed 2022
Gum arabic dissolved in drinking water and administered for 28 days dose-dependently increased the expression by mouse monocyte-derived macrophages of cathelicidin, an antimicrobial peptide and a target of non-antibiotic treatment of infectious diseases. Siednamohammeddeen 2022
Gum arabic orally administered for 5 weeks improved the biochemical profile and ameliorated liver histopathology, preventing the development of hepatocellular carcinoma, in rats with uremia induced by total right kidney and subtotal left kidney nephrectomies. Fareed 2022
Treatment with gum arabic (2.5-5% via gavage for 12 weeks) decreased the number of aberrant crypts in a mouse model of colonic carcinogenesis, as well as decreased colonic, hepatic, and systemic genotoxicity and oxidative stress. Avelino 2022
Co-administration of insulin and gum arabic (Acacia senegal) improved markers of glycemia and renal function, including renal levels of TGF-β1, endothelin-1, and angiotensin II, in rats with diabetic nephropathy. Mohammed 2022
Pretreatment with gum arabic ameliorated disease activity and histological scores in a mouse model of colitis, decreasing the expression of fibrotic markers associated with enhanced epithelial cell proliferation and increasing pro-inflammatory ones. Al-Araimi 2021
Acacia senegal (gum arabic) aqueous extract alleviated the toxicity induced by CCl4 administration to various organs of rats (liver, lung, brain, and spleen), effects associated with reducing the levels of reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, and NF-κB gene expression. Abu-Serie 2021
Pretreatment with gum arabic in drinking water for 30 days ameliorated the nephrotoxicity of butralin, an herbicide and plant growth regulator, in female rats, an effect associated with enhanced antioxidant protection and free radical scavenging activity in renal tissues. Refaie 2021
In a murine colitis model, acacia gum showed significant anti-inflammatory effects following rectal administration, especially in combination with 5-amino salicylic acid. Jhundoo 2021
Gum arabic (Acacia senegal) administered at 10% w/v showed significant protective effects against oxidative stress and genotoxicity induced by a radiographic contrast medium, ioxitalamate (Telebrix-35®), in rats. El-Garawani 2021
Administration of gum arabic mitigated hyperlipidemia and inflammation, but not weight increase, induced by a Western diet in mice via upregulation of miR-33 and miR-155 and reduction of TNF-α. Hussein 2021
Gum arabic administered at 15% w/v in drinking water reversed gut microbiota disturbances induced by adenine in chronic kidney disease rats via increased butyrate, and anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-nitrosative activity. Lakshmanan 2021
Gum acacia (15% w/v in drinking water for 4 weeks) alleviated signs of chronic kidney disease and restored plasma levels of propionate and butyrate in an adenine-induced rat model, effects associated with modulating gut microbiome. Al-Asmakh 2020
Administration of gum arabic (5% w/v in tap water for 21 days) from Acacia senegal significantly increased testosterone levels and offspring number, as well as promoted normal seminiferous tubule histology, in mice. Nasir 2020
Combined use of gum arabic, parsley, and corn silk extracts, traditionally used in renal failure, reversed the adverse effects of amikacin on renal cell apoptotic markers in mice by triggering lysosome synthesis via modulatory effects on G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling. Helmy 2020
Gum acacia significantly mitigated the toxic effects of daily exposure to hookah smoke (30 min/day for 30 days) on the reproductive system of male mice by reducing inflammation, oxidation, and nitrosative stress. Ali 2020
Treatment with gum arabic (15% w/v in drinking water) significantly reduced duodenal inflammation and mitigated oxidative and nitrosative stress in the gastrointestinal tract of mice with chronic kidney disease. Ali 2020
Gum arabic from Acacia senegal, pre-administered at 15% in drinking water, demonstrated gastroprotective activity in ethanol-induced ulcer rats by inhibiting leukocyte infiltration and increasing prostaglandin E2, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase content. Taha 2020
Gum arabic administered in drinking water significantly mitigated airway inflammation and lipid peroxidation, prevented lung DNA damage and airway hyperreactivity, and reduced pulmonary NF-κB expression, while increasing Nrf2 and glutathione levels in the bronchial epithelial and alveolar cells of mice exposed to waterpipe (shisha) tobacco smoke daily for 1 month. Nemmar 2019
Gum acacia in the diet decreased body weight, epididymal fat mass, adipocyte size, hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, while promoting beta-oxidation and intestinal barrier integrity, in mice fed a high-fat and high-sucrose diet for 18 weeks. Jangra 2019
Pretreatment with gum acacia (1-3 g/kg in drinking water for 12 weeks) significantly reduced fibrosis, tubular injury, IL-1β, TNF-α, caspase-3, and MCP-1 while increasing IL-10, antioxidant capacity and complement receptor 1 levels in the kidneys in a mouse model of diclofenac-induced nephrotoxicity. Shafeek 2019
Gum arabic administration in drinking water significantly ameliorated coagulation, cardiac inflammation and oxidative stress parameters, including tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin 1β in heart homogenates, as well as systolic blood pressure increase, induced by exposure to water-pipe smoke in rats, effects associated with activation of the Nrf2 pathway. Nemmar 2019
Gum arabic administered via oral gavage for 16 weeks significantly reduced the number of preneoplastic lesions in an azoxymethane-induced rat model of colorectal carcinogenesis. Braga 2019
Oral administration of gum arabic (15 g/kg/day) attenuated increases in renal tissue levels of malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase, proinflammatory and profibrotic cytokines expression, and the severity of tubular dilatation in a rat model of obstructive nephropathy; however, no affect was observed on alterations in renal blood flow or glomerular filtration rate. Hammad 2019
Acacia seyal hydroethanolic extract significantly and dose-dependently reduced mammary tumor incidence, burden, and mass in a 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced rat breast cancer model. Zingue 2018
Gum arabic (15% w/w in drinking water) significantly improved renal function in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes with or without chronic kidney disease. Al Za'abi 2018
Gum acacia administered in drinking water along with potassium bromate significantly ameliorated renal toxicity, as demonstrated on kidney function tests, histopathology, and several traditional and novel renal injury biomarkers in the plasma, urine, and renal tissues, in a rat model. Ali 2018
Administration by gavage of polysaccharopeptide from Coriolus versicolor combined with acacia gum significantly increased IgG titre levels and decreased those of IgM, with no alterations observed for IgA or IgE in mice, suggesting weak immunological effects of the combination as an adjuvant to chemotherapy. Sekhon 2016
Gum arabic (15% in drinking water, administered for 8 weeks) increased the expression levels and/or activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase; reduced those of alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase; decreased liver malondialdehyde; and increased glutathione content, preventing liver damage in diabetic rats. Ahmed 2015
Gum arabic (15% w/v in drinking water for 4 weeks) ameliorated genetic damage in kedney cells, as shown by reduced urinary 8-oxoguanine and 8-oxoguanosine levels, in adenine-induced chronic renal failure rats. Ali 2015
Gum acacia in drinking water ameliorated most of the indices of chronic kidney disease induced by intraperitoneal administration of adenine in rats, similarly to the previously established model induced by oral adenine administration. Al Za'abi 2015
Gum acacia (15% w/v in drinking water) significantly ameliorated the impairment of renal vascular responses to acetylcholine, sodium nitroprusside, and phenylephrine in the adenine-induced rat model of chronic kidney disease. Al Suleimani 2015
Oral administration for 4 days of Acacia seyal root aqueous extract, traditionally used in Kenya for the treatment of malaria, demonstrated inhibitory activity in Plasmodium berghei berghei-infected mice, while being non-toxic in a Brine shrimp lethality test. Mwangi 2015
Gum arabic administered in drinking water significantly ameliorated myocardial histopathology and left ventricular volume increase associated with chronic kidney disease in the adenine-induced rat model. Ali 2014
Administration of gum acacia significantly reversed renal damage in adenine-induced chronic kidney disease rats, including amelioration of anemia associated with a reduction of the uremic toxin indoxyl sulfate. Ali 2014
Gum arabic significantly increased water and D-mannitol uptake, indicative of paracellular transport, in everted frog gut sacs, suggesting relevance for its known proabsorbent activity in models of diarrhea. Pai 2013
Oral treatment of gum arabic prevented histopathological alterations and completely reversed changes in creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and total nitrate/nitrite levels in a rat model of mercury-induced kidney toxicity. Gado 2013
A study establishes a new model of adenine-induced chronic renal failure in mice and rats, with gum acacia administered in drinking water for 4 weeks providing significant protective effects against plasma creatinine, urea, and urinary protein increases and renal homogenate reductions. Ali 2013
Gum arabic administered for 4 weeks in drinking water significantly ameliorated adenine-induced inflammation and oxidative stress in chronic renal failure rats. Ali 2013
Treatment with different brands of gum arabic (Sudanese, Supergum, and BDH) significantly, and to a similar extent, reduced the signs of renal failure, including increases in blood pressure; plasma levels of urea, creatinine, inflammatory cytokines; oxidative markers; and histological damage, in an adenine-induced rat model of chronic kidney disease. Ali 2013
Oral administration of gum arabic (Acacia senegal) significantly decreased blood pressure and proteinuria in diabetic mice, thus providing potential evidence of benefits in diabetic nephropathy. Nasir 2012
Oral administration of gum arabic elicited protection in models of acute and chronic renal failure, effects associated with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Mahmoud 2012
Gum acacia aqueous extract in the diet for 21 days alleviated the damaging effects of meloxicam, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, on the intestinal histology in rats. In addition, the extract administered alone significantly decreased intestinal levels of lipase, amylase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase. Abd El-Mawla 2011
Gum acacia supplementation in drinking water) significantly reversed the increases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure in an adenine-induced rat model of chronic renal failure. Ali 2011
Administration of gum arabic (10% in drinking water) slightly but significantly decreased the parasitemia and significantly extended the life span of mice infected with Plasmodium berghei, indicative of an anti-malarial effect. Ballal 2011
Treatment with gum acacia (1 g/day for 21 days) prevented changes in pancreatic and intestinal enzyme levels and intestinal epithelial damage induced by aspirin (400 mg/kg of body weight) in rats. Nasif 2011
Acacia gum, administered at 10% w/v in drinking water, significantly reversed behavioral abnormalities, including reduced motor activity and prolonged immobility, in a chronic renal failure rat model. Ali 2011
Gum arabic (Acacia senegal), administered at 10% wt/vol in drinking water, decreased colonic mRNA and protein levels of various oncogenes and markers of angiogenesis in a mouse model of colon carcinoma, decreasing tumor counts 70%. Nasir 2010
Arabinogalactan from gum arabic did not provide allergy-protective effects in experimentally induced mice. Peters 2010
Gum arabic (Acacia senegal) administered for 4 weeks in drinking water remarkably attenuated biomarkers of renal failure and reverted body weight decreases and histological alterations in an adenine-induced rat model of chronic renal failure. Ali 2010
Gum arabic administered for 4 weeks via drinking water (100 g/L) reduced jejunal brush border membrane vesicles expression of the intestinal Na(+)-coupled glucose transporter SGLT1 protein and significantly blunted increases in body weight, fasting plasma glucose, and fasting insulin levels induced by a 20% glucose solution and a high fat diet in mice. Nasir 2010
Gum arabic (7.5 g/kg/day for 6 days in drinking water) reversed changes in the levels of glutathione, attenuated inflammation and edema, and restored normal histology and responsiveness to acetylcholine in the bladders of rats exposed to cyclophosphamide. Al-Yahya 2009
Administration (10% in drinking water) of gum arabic (Acacia senegal) in mice increased creatinine clearance and urinary antidiuretic hormone excretion, while decreasing daily urine output and urinary excretion of Na(+), thereby supporting its use in renal insufficiency. Nasir 2008
Oral administration for 6 days of gum arabic diminished the activity of rat intestinal NF-kappaB p65 protein induced by administration of cathartic, with both treatments increasing the expression of IL-1beta in the mucosal tissue. Wapnir 2008
Oral administration of gum arabic (20 g/L for 6 days) dose-dependently induced increases in net water and sodium absorption in a diarrhea-induced rat model of gastrointestinal dysfunction. Codipilly 2006
A study using an enrichment culture of pig cecal bacteria identified Prevotella ruminicola-like bacterium as a predominant bacterium most likely responsible for fermentation of gum arabic (Acacia(sen)SUPER GUMEM2) to propionate. Kishimoto 2006
Gum arabic decreased nitrite and nitrate formation in rat jejunum and concentration-dependently inhibited nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in small intestinal homogenate supernatants from young and adult rats, in addition to NO scavenging effects confirmed in vitro. Rehman 2004
Administration of gum arabic in the drinking water at 3-6 g/100 mL for 5 consecutive weeks did not ameliorate body weight loss and only slightly (by ~8%-13%) reversed the increases in urea and creatinine levels in rat models of chronic renal failure. Ali 2004
Administration of gum arabic in drinking water at 2.5%-10.0% w/v for 8 consecutive days did not produce significant antioxidative effects as shown by levels of reduced glutathione, ascorbic acid, lipid peroxidation, and superoxide dismutase in the livers and kidneys of rats. Ali 2004
Oral pre-administration of gum arabic ameliorated the hepatotoxicity of acetaminophen in mice as demonstrated by decreased serum levels of liver enzymes, reversal of hepatic peroxidation, and suppressed nitric oxide synthesis, without affecting acetaminophen-induced hepatic glutathione depletion. Gamal el-din 2003
Oral cotreatment with gum arabic did not alleviate the nephrotoxicity induced by cisplatin in rats despite having decreased lipid peroxidation levels in the kidney, suggesting other mechanisms involved in the toxicity of the drug. Al-Majed 2003
Oral administration for 10 days of gum arabic appeared to ameliorate gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats, as demonstrated by dampened increases in plasma creatinine and urea levels, partial restoration of reduced glutathione in the renal cortex, and modest reversal of tubular necrosis. Ali 2003
Administration of acacia gum (25 g/kg) for 5 days before and 72 h after an injection of doxorubicin significantly protected against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in mice, as shown by reductions in serum levels of creatine kinase and cardiac lipid peroxides, effects associated with a potent superoxide scavenging activity. Abd-Allah 2002
Oral administration for 8 days of acacia gum reversed gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats, completely abolishing the increase in malondialdehyde levels and preventing necrosis, tubular epithelial cell desquamation, and interstitial nephritis, providing support of the traditional use in renal failure. Al-Majed 2002
Gum arabic improved the absorption of sodium, glucose, and water in the presence of l-arginine and glybenclamide in a rat model of gastrointestinal diseases with elevated nitric oxide, likely by direct scavenging of nitric oxide as it diffuses into the gut. Rehman 2001
Gum arabic increased the absorption of water, sodium, and D-glucose in rat jejunum in a non-sodium-dependent manner, suggesting usefulness for increasing the absorption of substances transported via transcellular and/or transjunctional transport pathways. Wingertzahn 2001
Perfusion of rat jejunal segments with a plasma electrolyte solution containing 2.5-5.0 g/L gum arabic reduced cholera toxin-induced secretion in vivo. Turvill 2000
Addition of gum arabic (2.5 g/L) to an oral rehydration solution induced optimal recovery in rats with chronic diarrhea, including more weight gain and lower fecal output. Teichberg 1999
Addition of gum arabic (2.5-5 g/L) to rehydration solution increased sodium, potassium, and water absorption by approximately two-fold, neutralized theophylline-induced abolition of mineral absorption, and reversed water and glucose malabsorption in rat models of diarrhea. Wapnir 1997
Addition of gum arabic to oral rehydration solution enhanced sodium absorption in rats. Wapnir 1996
Gum arabic attenuated endotoxin-induced liver injury in rats by suppressing macrophage activation. Mochida 1996
Administration of gum arabic in drinking water (30 g/L) increased cecal proliferation zone and colonic crypt depth in rats. Howard 1995
Dietary gum arabic induced cecal enlargement and an increase in urea flux from blood to cecum in rats, with a decrease in blood urea and renal nitrogen excretion, suggesting a potential in the treatment of chronic renal disease. Younes 1995
Dietary gum arabic increased short-chain fatty acids concentrations in the cecum of rats. Moundras 1994
A study provides a value of 14.7 +/- 0.5 kJ/g for the digestible energy for gum arabic (compared to 17.4 +/- 0.4 kJ/g for starch) in rats, casting doubt on the near-zero energy value for gum arabic. Harley 1989
A comparative study evaluated the effects of gum arabic to those of other gums and polysaccharides on plasma glucagon and enteroglucagon and on ileal crypt cell production rate in rast. Johnson 1988
A high fiber diet containing 15% gum arabic induced a marked enlargement of the cecum, a trophic effect on the cecal wall, and enhanced mineral absorption in rats. Tulung 1987
Dietary supplementation with 10% (w/w) gum arabic for 45 days induced no ultrastructural abnormalities of jejunum, ileum, and caecum tissues from rats. Anderson 1986
A study investigated the immunogenic and non-specific irritant properties of gum arabic and a residue obtained after ethanol extraction of gum arabic following immunization in mice. Strobel 1986
A study demonstrated the capacity of oral gum arabic to significantly induce immune tolerance in mice when encountered via natural routes. Strobel 1986
Gum arabic accelerated the rate of passage of 14C-labelled aflatoxin B1 through the small intestine and increased fecal bulk in male rats. Frape 1982
Oral administration of gum arabic partially inhibited demethylation of aminopyrine induced by phenobarbital in rats. Lutz 1978
Gum arabic decreased cholesterol absorption and increased cholesterol biosynthesis in rats fed a cholesterol-containing diet but had no effect in a cholesterol-free diet. Kelley 1978
Effect of dietary pectin, protopectin and gum arabic on cholesterol excretion in rats [No abstract] Lin 1957
[Influence of desoxycorticosterone, n-hexyl butyrate, alpha-naphthylthiourea, and gum arabic on the survival of rats following a mortal dose of x-rays] [Article in undetermined language] [No abstract] Lambert 1950
History of Record
January 2023
June 2023