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Scientific Name:
Melissa officinalis
Family Name:
Common Name:
lemon balm
Other Information
Cultivation, Conservation & Ecology
The concentration of polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) leaves were higher in plant material harvested from phytosociological culture treated with biofertilizers. Luță 2022
A combination of Red+Blue LED enhanced total phenolics, rosmarinic acid, and amino acids, and significantly increased leaf number, pigment, soluble sugar content, secondary metabolites, calcium, magnesium, potassium and amino acid content in Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) grown in greenhouse conditions for 7 weeks. Ahmadi 2022
Seed germination and growth of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) were strongly dependent on soil pH, which affected photosynthetic efficiency and correlated with the uptake of heavy metals including manganese and copper, although zinc behaved in a more random way. Adamczyk-Szabela 2022
White light and red-rich light spectra were most impactful on growth and yield of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm), while blue-rich spectra had a lower impact on development and yield despite having a significant impact on the photosynthesis activity. Rihan 2022
Pretreatment with melatonin affected Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) mineral content, including improving Cd and Zn uptake and translocation to leaves, during heavy metals stress. Turk 2021
Salt stress induced by application of NaCl solutions (50-100 mM) promoted the accumulation of phenolic compounds in Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) plants and did not disturb the photosynthetic system, despite stunting the plant growth. Hawrylak-Nowak 2021
Different combinations of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) significantly affected essential oil composition, including content of mono- (e.g. citronellal) or sesquiterpenes, in Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) 'Ilam' and 'Isfahan' genotypes, with plants grown under the red and blue light combination yielding the highest anitoxidant activity. Ahmadi 2021
Increased zinc and cadmium soil content augmented the photosynthesis, but decreased root manganese content, while inversely affecting lead and copper levels, in Melissa officinalis plants grown in typical Polish farmland soil. Adamczyk-Szabela 2020
Irrigation with a solution containing zinc oxide nanoparticles and nanoelemental selenium (10 mg/L) stimulated the biomass production, phenols content in the leaves, and the expression of rosmarinic acid synthase in Melissa officinalis. Babajani 2019
Priming Melissa officinalis plantlets during greenhouse growth for 4 weeks with red + blue light-emitting diodes (LED) lighting increased their drought tolerance, by maintaining higher fresh and dry weights, antioxidant activity, and rosmarinic acid content. Ahmadi 2019
A study found paradoxical effects of combined copper and cadmium toxicity in Melissa officinalis, reportedly often cultivated in soils contaminated with heavy metals. Adamczyk-Szabela 2019
Treatment with gamma-radiation (10 kGy) did not prevent changes in compound profiles of Melissa officinalis stored for 18 months, although main characteristics were maintained during the first 12 months of storage. Pereira 2018
Draught stress differently affected five Melissa officinalis cultivars: Essential oil composition changed variously; the yield increased (in 1 cultivar), decreased, or stayed the same; morphological differences disappeared. Rosmarinic acid decreased in all genotypes under stress. Szabó 2017
Increasing water supply (25-70% of soil water capacity) positively affected the growth but reduced the polyphenol content of pot-grown Melissa officinalis. However, the total antioxidant capacity and rosmarinic acid content correlated strongly with the treatments. Németh-Zámbori 2016
Application of a commercially available arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculation mixture increased the yield of phenolic compounds in potted lemon balm. Engel 2016
The effects of ozone exposure on in vitro Melissa officinalis shoots were investigated. D'Angiolillo 2015
The effect of harvesting time on yield and essential oil quality of Melissa officinalis was studied in Doon valley, India. Singh 2014
Background ozone exposure up-regulated rosmarinic acid-synthesizing enzymes, concurrent with leaf necrosis and diminished rosmarinic acid levels in Melissa officinalis leaves. Döring 2014
The effects of ozone exposure on Melissa officinalis were further elucidated. Döring 2014
The effects of ozone exposure on Melissa officinalis were elucidated. Pellegrini 2013
The effects of plant hormones on the growth of Melissa officinalis stem cuttings were investigated. It was found that cuttings with at least one bud must be used. Sevik 2013
The influences of photosynthetically active and ultraviolet B radiation on herbal yield, content, composition, and antioxidant capacity of essential oils and polyphenols of Melissa officinalis grown under controlled greenhouse conditions were studied. Manukyan 2013
Higher nitrate content and the presence of organochlorine pesticides were found in conventionally cultivated lemon balm leaves, compared to those organically cultivated. Lima 2012
The influence of ultraviolet-B light irradiation on the metabolite profiles of Melissa officinalis was explored. Kim 2012
Various leaf structural and chemical features of 8 perennial species including Melissa officinalis were assessed as possible predictors of size of the phyllosphere bacterial population in the Mediterranean environment. Yadav 2005
Variability in both the content and quality of essential oil was observed in herb and leaf drugs in dependence on the harvest cut height of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L. cv. Citra). Mrlianová 2002
Comparison of the quality of Melissa officinalis L. cultivar Citra with Mellissas of European origin including height, foliage, and essential oil content in the leaves. Mrlianova 2001
The effect of herbicides on the qualitative properties of medicinal plants. Part 3: Content and composition of the essential oil from Melissa officinalis L. after application of Basagran. [no abstract] Vaverkova 1995
The essential oil content of various populations of Melissa officinalis, cultivated under Mediterranean climatic conditions (Ebro-Delta, Spain) was investigated during five years of selection and improvement of the genetic plant material. Adzet 1992
History of Record
ORIGINAL RESEARCH BY: Michael C. Tims, PhD. Candidate
March 2002
MAJOR REVISION BY: J Mohanasundaram, MD, PhD
October 2007
November 2022