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General Glossary
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z
abortifacient
a drug or chemical agent that induces abortion
absorption
uptake of a substance into the body or a tissue through skin or mucous membrane
accommodation disturbance
disturbance in the ability of the eye to focus
acetylcholinesterase
nuerotransmitter enzyme that hydrolyzes acetylcholine, affecting functioning of the parasympathetic nervous system
acetylcholinesterase inhibitor
agent that counteracts hydrolysis of acetylcholine to acetate and choline
acid
a solution having a pH of less than seven
acinus
small sac-like dilatation
acne
a chronic skin disorder due to inflammation of hair follicles and sebaceous glands (secretion glands in the skin)
actino-
in botany, rayed, starlike
active transport
movement of particles across cell membranes requiring the expenditure of energy
acute
an illness or symptom of sudden onset, which generally has a short duration
addiction
habitual dependence on a substance
Addison's disease
characterized by the chronic destruction of the adrenal cortex, which leads to an increased loss of sodium and water in the urine, muscle weakness and low blood pressure.  The bronze color of the skin is due to the increased production of the skin pigment, melanin.
additive
the substance being added to another to obtain the desired product (e.g., food colors and food processing).
adenoma
an ordinarily benign growth of epithelial tissue in which the tumor cells form glands or gland-like structures that tend to exhibit glandular function
adjuvant
a substance added to a drug that affects the action of the active ingredient in a predictable way
adnexitis
inflammation of organ appendages, typically referring to the fallopian tube
adrenoceptors
sites on nerve cells or fibers which react to epinephrine or norepinephrine
adsorbent
a solid substance which binds other substances to its surface but does not interact chemically with them
adsorption
the property of a solid substance to attract and hold other molecules to its surface
aegyptiacus
in botany, of Egypt
aglycone
non-carbohydrate portion of a glycoside
agranulocytosis
condition characterized by a marked decrease in the number of white blood cells called granulocytes
AIDS
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, a syndrome of the immune system caused by the HIV virus which weakens the immune system by destroying T4 helper/inducer lymphocytes
akathisia
condition of motor restlessness that can range from a sense of inner disquiet to inability to sleep, seen in toxic reaction to neuroleptic and antipsychotic medication
albuminuria
presence of albumin in the urine
alcoholic solution
in the case of herb preparations, mixture of water and ethanol used to dissolve an herb or its constituents
-alis
in botany, pertaining to, e.g.  digitalis, pertaining to a finger
alkaline
a solution having a pH greater than seven
allergic keratitis
inflammation of the cornea due to allergic response
allergy
hypersensitivity caused by exposure to a particular antigen (allergen), resulting in an increased reactivity to that antigen on subsequent exposure, sometimes with harmful immunologic consequences
alopecia
loss of hair
alpinus
in botany, of high mountains
alterative
a term used in botanical medicine referring to a substance that restores health gradually, similar to a tonic
alveolar
pertaining to a small hollow space, as in the lung, e.g.  pulmonary alveolus
amantadine (amantadine hydrochloride)
antiviral agent used to prevent or treat influenza; also used to treat Parkinson's disease
amarum
bitter vegetable drug
ammi
in botany, from an umbelliferous plant
analeptic
central nervous system stimulant
analgesic
agent which relieves pain without causing loss of consciousness
anancastic
pertaining to any form of repetitious stereotyped behavior that causes anxiety if prevented
anaphylactic
intense allergic reaction to a foreign substance
anaphylactic shock
life-threatening allergic response characterized by decreased blood pressure and impaired respiration
ancyclostoma
parasitic hookworm in the human duodenum
anemia
low amounts of red blood cells with clinical symptoms such as shortness of breath, lethargy and heart palpitations
anemo-
in botany, pertaining to wind
anesthesia
loss of sensation caused by neurological dysfunction or a pharmacological depression of nerve function
anesthetic
agent causing loss of sensation by neurological dysfunction or a pharmacological depression of nerve function
aneurysm
localized enlargement of an artery
angina
severe, restricting pain, usually referring to the pectoris
angina pectoris
severe chest pain
angioedema
recurring attacks of transient, subcutaneous edema, often due to an allergic reaction
angioneuropathy
any neuropathy affecting primarily blood vessels as angiospasm, angioparalysis, or vasomotor paralysis
angioneurosis
vasomotor (causing dilation or constriction of the blood vessels) nervous disease for which there is no detectable damage to nerve tissue
angusti-
in botany, narrow
anhydrous
water deficient
aniso-
in botany, uneven, unequal
anorectic
agent that decreases appetite
anterior
in the front or forward part of the organ or toward the head of the body
anthelmintic
agent that expels or destroys intestinal worms
antiandrogenic
substance capable of preventing full expression of the biological effects of androgenic hormones on responsive tissues, either by producing an antagonistic effect, as in the case of estrogen, or by competing for receptor sites on the cell surface
antiarrhythmic
combating an irregular heart beat
antibacterial
destroying or inhibiting the growth of bacteria
antibody
immunoglobulin molecule evoked as a response to an antigen which then interacts with the antigen
anti-chemotactic
preventing the movement of cells or organisms in response to chemicals
anticholinergic
antagonistic to the cholinergic nerve fibers
anticoagulant
preventing clotting
antiedamatous
preventing swelling
antiemetic
preventing vomiting
anti-exudative
preventing oozing
antifungal
destroying or combating fungi
antigonadotropic
agent preventing growth or function of the testes or ovary
antihistamine
drugs, used to treat allergy symptoms, which block the action of histamine
antiinflammatory
reducing inflammation by acting on body mechanisms, without directly acting on the cause of inflammation, e.g., glucocorticoids, aspirin
antimicrobial
tending to destroy microbes, hinder their multiplication or growth
antimuscarinic
inhibiting the toxic effect of muscarine or muscarine-like substances
antimycotic
fungicidal
antiparasitic
destructive to parasites
antiphlogistic
preventing inflammation
antiseptic
inhibiting growth of infectious organisms
antisialagogue
counteracts formation of saliva
antispasmodic
preventing spasms
antithyrotropic
inhibiting thyroid hormones
antitussive
cough suppressant
anuria
inability to urinate
-anus
in botany, belonging to, e.g., virginianus, of Virginia
anxiety
apprehension of danger, or dread, accompanied by nervous restlessness, tension, increased heart rate, and shortness of breath unrelated to a clearly identifiable stimulus
aortic stenosis
narrowing of the aortic valve of the heart
aphrodisiac
substance increasing or arousing sexual desire
aplasia
absence of tissue or defective organ development
aplastic anemia
anemia caused by failure of red blood cells to regenerate
apnea
cessation of breathing
apoplexy
sudden neurologic impairment due to a cerebrovascular disorder, e.g., cerebral stroke
aqueous extract
water extract
argyro-
in botany, silvery
-arium
in botany, place where something is done, e.g., herbarium, collection of dried plants
armoracia
in botany, designation for horseradish
aroma corrigent
substance that reduces, neutralizes or enhances an odor
aromatic bitter
bitter used as a flavoring due to its volatile oils
arrhythmia
any deviation from the normal rhythm of the heart
arrythmogenic
causing a change in the normal rhythm of the heart
arteriosclerosis
arterial hardening
arthralgia
joint pain
arthritis
joint inflammation
arthrosis
joint disease
arthrosis deformans
noninfectious degeneration of a joint characterized by pain, cracking, and loss of bone
ascarid
large, heavy-bodied roundworms parasitic in the human intestine
-ascens
in botany, process of becoming, e.g., violascens, becoming violet
ascites
accumulation of serous fluid in the abdominal cavity
aspiration
inhalation, or removal of fluids or gases from a cavity using suction
asthenia
diminishing strength and energy
astringent
agent causing contraction, especially after topical application
ataxia
failed muscular coordination, irregular muscular action
ataxic
relating to or suffering from ataxia
atelectasis
incomplete lung expansion or lung collapse and airlessness
atherosclerosis
common form of arteriosclerosis with deposits of yellow plaques containing cholesterol, lipids, and lipophages within the intima and inner media of arteries
-aticus
in botany, place of growth, e.g., aquaticus, growing in water
atony
in botany, lack of muscle tone of the supportive musculature of the bladder sphincter, resulting in incontinence
atopic
genetically predisposed toward developing immediate hypersensitivity reactions to common environmental allergens
atopic allergy
genetically determined state of hypersensitivity to environmental allergens
atropine-like effect
anticholinergic effect, resulting in tachycardia, mydriasis, constipation, retention of urine, limited perspiration attributable to the blockade of acetylcholine at muscarinic type cholinergic receptors in the nervous system
-atus
in botany, likeness of possession, rostratus, having a beak
Auerbach's myenteric plexus
network of nerves in the muscular layer of the wall of the digestive tract
autoimmune disease
immune response directed against tissues within one's own body
autumnalis
in botany, of the fall season
axon
an extended process of a neuron that conducts impulses traveling away from the cell body
bacteriostatic
preventing multiplication of bacteria
balneological treatment
treatment by immersing part of the body in a bath
balneotherapy
healing bath
barbadensis
in botany, from Barbados, e.g., Aloe barbadensis
bathmotropic
a response to stimulants which influences nervous and muscular irritability; negatively bathmotropiclessening nervous or muscular irritability; positively bathmotropicincreasing nervous or muscular irritability
biliary dyskinesia
inability to secrete bile
biliary excretion (of drug)
removal of the drug metabolites fomed in the body through bile, usually important for compounds with higher molecular weights (greater than 500)
bilirubinuria
presence of bilirubin (yellow-red pigment of bile) in urine
-bilis
in botany, ability or capacity, sensibilis, capable of sensitivity
binding to plasma protein
attachment of a compound, usually pharmaceutically active, to proteins in the blood, an important consideration when two or more drugs are simultaneously administered and displace each other
bitter
a bitter-tasting infusion or tonic that affects digestion or appetite by stimulating the increasing output of saliva and gastric juices; gentian and hops are among the plants used for this purpose
bitter principle
alkaloid
bitter principles
constituents possessing a bitter taste
bitterness value
inverse of the dilution at which a compound imparts a perceptible, bitter taste (e.g., a bitterness value of 50,000 means a part of the compound in 50,000 parts of water still tastes bitter)
bladder and kidney congestion
accumulation of fluid in the tissues resulting from congestive heart failure
blennorrhea
excess discharge from mucous surfaces, such as the urethra or vagina; term used in the past for gonorrhea
blood purification
the process by which an agent or organ enhances the body's normal function of removing impurities from the blood stream
blood viscosity
fluid flexibility of the blood
borealis
in botany, northern
brachialgia
arm pain
brachy-
in botany, short
bradycardia
slow heart rate
brevi-
in botany, short
brightening agent
filler
bronchitis
inflammation of the mucous membrane of the bronchial tubes, frequently accompanied by cough, hypersecretion of mucus, and expectoration of sputum
broncholytic
agent that reduces viscosity of bronchial secretions
bronchospasmolytic
reducing spasms of the bronchial tubes
bronchospasm
sudden involuntary contraction of the smooth muscles surrounding the bronchial tubes
bruise
injury producing a hematoma or diffuse extravasation of blood without breaking the skin
buccal
pertaining to, located near, the cheek
bud
immature vegetative or floral shoot, often covered by scales
-bundus
in botany, fullness, abundance, floribundus, full of flowers
bunion
localized swelling at the first metatarsophalangeal joint (between the instep and the toes) due to an inflamed bursa (fluid-filled sac)
bursitis
inflammation of bursa or fluid-filled sacs which normally function to reduce friction
cachexia
weight loss due to chronic disease or prolonged emotional stress
calyx
external leafy portion of flower consisting of sepals
cancer
refers to the various types of malignant neoplasms which contain cells growing out of control and invading adjacent tissues, which can metastasize to distant tissues
candidiasis
infection with Candida, especially Candida albicans, usually resulting from debilitation (AIDS, prolonged administration of antibiotics)
canker sore
a small, painful ulcer that occurs on the inside of the cheek, lip or underside of the tongue
carbon clearance test
method of measuring the activity of the immune system
carcinogenicity
tendency to cause cancer
carcinoma
malignant growth of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissue and giving rise to metastasis
cardiac
pertaining to the heart, also, pertaining to the stomach area adjacent to the esophagus
cardiac asthma
sudden intensification of impaired breathing associated with heart disease such as left ventricular failure; cardiasthma
cardiac dysrhythmia
any irregularity of heart beat
cardiac glycoside
compound consisting of a plant steroid with one or more sugars that exerts an effect on the contraction and conduction of the heart muscle
cardiac neurasthenia
general fatigue originating from dysfunction of the heart
cardiac neurosis
heart irregularity of psychogenic origin
cardiomegaly
enlargement of the heart
carminative
agent relieving flatulence or gas
carpo-
in botany, pertaining to fruit
caryo-
in botany, nutlike
cataplasm
poultice
catarrh
mucous membrane inflammation
celery-carrot-mugwort syndrome
skin photosensitivity caused by massive consumption of vegetables containing psoralens, chemicals which can cause toxic effets when exposed to sunlight
cepa
in botany, Latin name for onion
cephalalgia
headache
cephalic
pertaining to the head
cervical syndrome
syndrome involving neck pain
cheilitis
inflammation affecting the lips
chloralized
anesthetized using chloral hydrate
cholagogue
agent that stimulates bile flow from the gallbladder into the duodenum
cholangitis
bile duct inflammation
cholecystitis
gallbladder inflammation
cholecystokinetic
increasing secretion of the gastrointestinal hormone cholecystokinin, which promotes emptying of the gallbladder
cholelithiasis
presence of gallstones in the gallbladder or bile duct
choleretic
agent stimulating the liver to increase bile production
cholestasis
cessation or suppression of bile flow
cholestatic liver disorder
an arrest in the flow of bile from the liver
choline absorption
intake of choline in free form or as lecithin (phosphatidylcholine), acetate (acetylcholine) from the vitamin B complex, or cytidine diphosphate
chologenic
producing bile
chondrosis
formation of cartilaginous tissue; term used in the past for a cartilaginous tumor
chronic illness
illness extending over a long period of time
chronotropic
affecting time or rate, especially heart rate
chryso-
in botany, golden
cicatricial keloid
nodular, firm, movable, nonencapsulated mass of scar tissue, tender and frequently painful
ciliary activity
activity of the eyelashes or any hairlike processes (cilia)
cinnamomeus
in botany, light reddish-brown
cirrhosis
disease of liver characterized by loss of normal microscopic lobular structure
claudication (intermittent)
condition caused by interruptions of blood supply to the muscles, characterized by limping and pain chiefly in the calf muscles
cleansing the blood
see blood purification
climacteric
period of transition from fertility to menopause
clonic
form of movement marked by contractions and relaxations of a muscle, occurring in rapid succession
coelo-
in botany, pertaining to a hollow
colitis ulcerosa (ulcerative colitis)
ulceration of the colon and rectum, usually chrinic, characterized by rectal bleeding, abdominal pain and diarrhea
collagen
primary protein within white fibers of connective tissue, cartilage, and bone
collagenosis
a disease affecting collagen
collateral circulation
blood flow through a side branch of a blood vessel
comminuted
crushed, pulverized
Composite
in botany, annual or perennial herb of the family Asteraceae (aka Compositae), with watery or milky sap, often with fleshy roots, simple leaves, flower corolla with five petals
condyloma
viral warts of the anal-genital region
congestive
pertaining to accumulation of blood or fluid within a vessel or organ
conjunctiva
mucous membrane covering the posterior surface of the eyelids and the anterior surface of the eyeball
constipation
infrequent or incomplete bowel movements
convulsant poison
a substance causing violent spasms of the face, trunk, and/or extremities
cornea
transparent structure forming the anterior part of the eye
coronary infarction
sudden lack of blood supply to the heart that results an area of dead cardiac tissue
coronary/myocardial perfusio
n
flow of blood to the heart and/or blood vessels surrounding the heart
cor pulmonale
hypertrophy of the right ventricle of the heart resulting from excessive pressure in the pulmonary artery
corpus luteum
yellow endocrine body formed in the ovary that secretes estrogen
corrigent
modifying or correcting
cortex
in botany, bark
corticosteroid
steroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex
Crohn's disease
chronic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract
cross reaction
reaction between an antibody and antigen, separate from the reaction which initially evoked formation of the antibody
crypto-
in botany, hidden
cteno-
in botany, pertaining to a term
curare-like effect
paralysis of skeletal muscle
cuti-visceral reflex
reaction of the digestive, respiratory, urogenital, or endocrine system to sensation on the skin
cyath-
in botany, cuplike
cystitis
inflammation of the urinary bladder
cytoplasmic
pertaining to the contents of a cell outside the nucleus
cytostatic
characterized by the slowing of movement and accumulation of blood cells
dasy-
in botany, shaggy, hairy
decoction
liquid prepared by boiling plant material in water for a period of time
decubitus ulcer
bed sore
demulcent
an agent which soothes and relieves irritation, especially of the mucous membranes
dermatitis
inflammatory skin condition
diabetes insipidus
excessive production of urine, usually due to insufficient production of antidiuretic hormone
diabetes mellitus
a disease with increased blood glucose levels due to lack or ineffectiveness of insulin
diaphoretic
sudorific, an agent promoting sweating
diarrhea
excessive discharge of contents of bowel
diastole
relaxation phase of the heart beat
diathesis
constitutional state of increased susceptibility to disease
disorders of kidney secretions
insufficient kidney flow
diuresis
excretion of urine
diuretic
agent increasing urine output
dopamine
a neurohormone; precursor to norepinephrine which acts as a stimulant to the nervous system
dosage
amount of therapeutic substance
dose
amount of a therapeutic substance to be taken during a specified time period
drage
pill or capsule with a sugar coating
dromotropic
affecting conductivity of nerve fibers
dropsy
edema, abnormal accumulation of water in the body, usually associated with weak heart performance
duodenum
first portion of the small intestine
between the pylorus and jejunum
dyscrasia
abnormal or pathological imbalance due to excessive material in the blood
dyskinesia
a condition characterized by spasmodic, uncoordinated, or other abnormal movements; i.e., those which result from a reaction to phenothiazines
dysmenorrhea
difficult or painful menstruation
dyspepsia
indigestion
dysplasia
abnormal development of tissue
dyspnea
difficult breathing
dystonia
impaired muscle tonus
dystrophic nervous disturbance
progressive changes that may result from defective nutrition of nervous tissue
dysuria
painful urination
ecchymosis
small, flat hemorrhagic spots on the skin or mucous membranes
eclampsia
convulsions, unrelated to other cerebral conditions, in pregnant or puerperal women (women who have just given birth)
ectopic
located outside normal position, e.g., location of fetus in pregnancy
eczema
inflammatory skin condition
edema
abnormal accumulation of fluids within tissues
edematous dermatitis
skin irritation marked by an accumulation of watery fluid
ejaculatio praecox
premature ejaculation during sexual intercourse
electrolyte
substance in solution that conducts an electrical current
-ellus
in botany, diminutive, e.g., echinellus, minutely spiny
embolism
obstruction of a vessel by an abnormal body, usually a detached blood clot
embrocation
liniment; external application of a liniment
embryotoxic
poisonous to the developing embryo
emetic
substance causing vomiting
empyema
pus located in a body cavity
emulsion
system containing two unmixable liquids in which one is dispersed in the form of small globules throughout the other
endangiitis obliterans
inflammation of the inner blood vessel membrane leading to vessel occlusion
endogenous depression
depressive mental state not resulting from life events
endplate
termination, referring to a motor nerve fiber that enervates to a skeletal muscle fiber
-ensis
in botany, origin, country, or place of growth; e.g., texensis, found in Texas
enteral
referring to the inside of the intestinal tract
enteral absorption
absorption by means of the intestine
enteritis regionalis
localized inflammation of the intestine
enuresis nocturna
bed-wetting
epicondylitis
infection or inflammation of a projection from a long bone near the extremity
epidermis
superficial epithelial layers of the skin
epigastric
relating to the area immediately above the stomach
epilemma
interstitial sheath-like connective tissue in a peripheral nerve that separates the individual nerve fibers
epilepsy
chronic brain disorder associated with some seizures and, typically, alteration of consciousness
epileptiform convulsion
violent spasms; similar to those of epilepsy
erythema nodosum
acute inflammation of skin with red nodules
erythro-
in botany, reddish
-escens
in botany, process of becoming; e.g., florescens, blooming
essential oil
volatile terpene derivatives responsible for the odor or taste of a plant
-estris
in botany, place of growth; e.g., campestris, growing in the field
estrogen receptor site binding
site on the surface of a cell receiving estrogen from circulation
estrogen-like
exerting biological effects similar to the effect of estrogen
exanthem
rash, symptomatic of viral or bacterial diseases
exocrine pancreas insufficiency
inability of the pancreas to secrete enzymes into the gastrointestinal tract for the digestion of proteins and fat
expectorant
promoting mucous secretion of the bronchi or facilitating its expulsion
extrapyramidal
referring to brain structures other than those needed for motor activities
extrasystole
an ectopic or asynchronous beat from any source in the heart
exudative diathesis
a constitutional or inborn predisposition to loss of fluids
familial Mediterranean fever
transient, recurrent attacks of fever with or without abdominal or joint pain, found usually among persons of Armenian or Sephardic (Jewish) descent
fatty liver
accumulation of triglycerides in the liver
febrifuge
antipyretic, agent fighting fever
febrile
having to do with a fever
fenestrated
anatomical, window-like opening
fermentative dyspepsia, fermentative digestive disturbances
impaired digestion associated with fermented foods
fibrinolytic activity
clot removal
fili-
in botany, threadlike
first-degree burn
burn involving only the epidermis and causing irritation and edema without blisters
fistula
an abnormal passageway, allowing movement between organs
flatulence
abnormal amount of gas in the stomach and intestines
flavor corrigent
agent accenting the flavors of components in a mixture
flower
reproductive structure of flowering plants with or without protective envelopes, the calyx and corolla
fluidextract
concentrated hydroalcoholic extract in which 1 ml is equivalent to 1 g of the original botanical
fluor albus
see leukorrhea
flux
profuse discharge from a body cavity
Foehn Illness
syndrome including sleep and mood disturbances accompanying strong warm winds in the Alps
folium
in botany, leaf
frostbite
damage to local tissue from exposure to extreme cold
fruit
matured ovary of flowering plants, with or without accessory parts
fruticosus
in botany, bushy
fungistatic
inhibiting the growth of fungi
furunculosis
localized skin infection
galactogogue
stimulating secretion of milk
galenical preparations
preparations of botanical drugs
gallstone
a gallbladder or bileduct concretion composed of cholesterol, occasionally mixed with calcium
ganglions
nerve cell bodies grouped in the peripheral nervous system
gargle
fluid used therapeutically as a throat wash
gastroenteritis
gastrointestinal tract inflammation; characterized by abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea, vomiting; which may be caused by bacteria, parasites or a virus
gingivitis
inflammation of the fibrous tissues that surround the teeth
gland-stimulating remedy
expectorant
glaucoma
eye disease with increased ocular pressure
glaucoma, narrow-angle
form of glaucoma in which contact of the iris with the peripheral cornea prevents normal drainage of aqueous humor
glosso-
in botany, tongue-like
glucocorticoid
any steroid-like compound capable of significantly influencing intermediary metabolism, such as promotion of deposition of glycogen in the liver, and of exerting a useful antiinflammatory effect
glucosuria
glucose in the urine
glycine
the simplest amino acid which is a contituent of normal protein and an inhibitory transmitter; used as a dietary supplement
glycogenolytic
breaking down glycogen to glucose
glycoside
a molecule which upon hydrolysis produces at least one simple sugar and non-sugar component
goiter
chronic thyroid gland enlargement, not due to cancerous growth
gout
a disease characterized by an increased blood uric acid level and sudden onset of episodes of acute arthritis
grandi-
in botany, large
granulation
pink, fleshy overgrowth of capillaries and collagen within a wound
granulatory
encouraging granulation
granulocyte
a mature white blood cell with cytoplasm containing granules
hallucination
perception of objects or events that are not actually present
hallux valgus
twisting of the big toe toward the outer side of the foot
helminthiasis
diseased state due to intestinal parasites such as nematodes, cestodes, trematodes, and acanthocephalans
hematoma
localized blood clot within an organ or tissue
hematuria
blood in the urine
hemodialysis
process of separating water and small soluble substances from the blood
hemolysis
breaking down of red blood cells
hemolytic icterus
jaundice due to hemolysis
hemorrhage
profuse blood flow
hemorrhagic nephritis
acute glomerulonephritis accompanied by hematuria (blood in the urine)
hemorrhoids
varicose disorder causing painful swellings at the anus; piles
hemostatic
stopping blood flow; antihemorrhagic agent
hepatitis
liver inflammation, typically due to a virus or toxic substance
hepatotoxic
poisonous to the liver
herpes simplex
infection, often recurrent, caused by herpes virus type 1 and 2 and typically found on the the lip or genetalia
hetero-
in botany, different
hippocampus
brain structure that forms the edge of the cortical mantle of the cerebral hemisphere
HIV
abbreviation for human immunodeficiency virus
holo-
in botany, entire
homeopathic
a product containing infinitesimal doses of a drug that would, in normal doses, produce symptoms of the disease that it is intended to treat
homo-
in botany, like, same
HPLC
high performance liquid chromatography
human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
a retrovirus associated with onset of advanced immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
hybrid
an individual (plant or animal) whose parents are different varieties of the same species or belong to different but closely allied species
hydrops (dropsy)
an excessive accumulation of clear, watery fluid in any of the tissues or cavities of the body; edema, ascites, anasarca
hypercalcemia
excess calcium in the blood
hypercholesterolemia
excess cholesterol in the blood
hypercrinia
excessive secretion of mucus
hyperemia
condition of increased blood accumulation in a portion of the body, due to inflammation, obstruction to blood flow, or local relaxation of arterioles
hyperemic
causing increased blood accumulation in a portion of the body; relating to hyperemia
hyperhidrosis
excessive sweating
hypertension
high blood pressure
hyperthyroidism
an abnormal condition of the thyroid gland resulting in excessive secretion of thyroid hormones characterized by an increased metabolism and weight loss
hypertonia
excessive concentration of salts in the blood; condition of having a greater osmotic pressure than a reference solution (blood or interstitial fluid), having a fluid in which cells shrink
hypertrophy
increase in the size of an organ due to enlargement of its cells; frequently with a corresponding increase in functional capacity
hypokalemia
abnormally low blood potassium
hypothermia
abnormally low body temperature
hypothrombinemia
abnormally low amounts of thrombin circulating in the blood, resulting in an increased tendency to bleed
hypothyroidism
diminished production of thyroid hormone, leading to low metabolic rate, tendency to gain weight, and somnolence
hypotonia
lessened tension; arterial relaxation
hypotonic-asthenic dyskinesia
condition characterized by weakened voluntary movements
hypoxic tolerance
ability to function despite below-normal availability of oxygen to tissue
ichthyosis
skin disease with extreme scaling
icterus
jaundice
ileus
bowel obstruction
in vitro
in an artificial environment, such as the test tube
in vivo
in a living animal
-ineus
in botany, color or material, stramineus, straw-colored
inotropic
affecting force of muscle contraction
intermittent claudication
symptom characterized by pain during walking
intestinal flora
bacteria living in the large intestine
intraperitoneal
in the peritoneal cavity underlying the abdomen, often referring to the location of experimental injections
involutional
reducing an enlarged organ to normal size
irrigation therapy
washing out a cavity or wound with a fluid; irrigation of the kidney parenchyma and the urinary tract by addition of increased amounts of liquid, usually a mild herbal teas with aquaretic or diuretic properties
ischialgia
hip pain
ischuria
retention or suppression of urine
iso-
in botany, equal
itch
irritating sensation of the skin that arouses the urge to scratch; pruritis
jaundice
increased blood plasma level of bile pigments causing yellowish staining of the integument, sclera, deeper tissues, and excreta
kali
pertaining to potassium
kaliuretic
substance increasing elimination of potassium into the urine
keloid
a nodular, firm, movable, nonencapsulated, often linear mass of scar tissue, tender and frequently painful, consisting of wide, irregularly distributed bands of collagen, usually occurring after trauma, surgery, a burn, or severe acne, more common among people of African orgin
kidney gravel
small concretions formed in the kidney
kyphosis
spinal deformity characterized by extensive flexion
lactation
production of milk; period after giving birth during which milk is secreted in the breasts
laevi-
in botany, smooth
lamina
in botany, blade
lanci-
in botany, spear-shaped
lani-
in botany, woolly
latex
milky emulsion or suspension formed by some seed plants; contains suspended particles of natural rubber or related compounds
lati-
in botany, broad
laxative
mild cathartic; agent having the property of loosening the bowels
leaf
a photosynthetic and transpiring organ, usually developed from leaf primordium in the bud; an expanded, usually green, organ borne on the stem of a plant
lepido-
in botany, scaly
lepto-
in botany, slender
leuco-, leuko-
in botany, white
leukopenia
low white blood cell count
leukoplakia
thickened, white patch on mucous membrane of the mouth, in some cases precancerous
leukorrhea
discharge from the vagina of a white or yellowish viscous fluid with pus and mucus cells
leukosis
abnormal proliferation of any of the tissues that produce white blood cells
lignum
in botany, wood
ligulate flowers
strap-shaped, as in the case of the flattened corolla in the ray florets of composites
limbic system
brain structures, including hippocampus, dentate gyrus, and amygdala
liniment
ointment
lipid
fat-soluble substances derived from animal or vegetable cells by nonpolar solvents (e.g.  ether); the term can include the following types of materials: fatty acids, glycerides, phospholipids, alcohols and waxes
lipid peroxidation
the introduction of a great number of oxygen molecules into unsaturated fatty acids
lipid-lowering
reducing levels of serum lipids in the circulation, usually refers to serum cholesterol
lipolytic
breaking down fat
lipophilic
agent that dissolves fats, e.g., alcohol
loop diuretic
fast-acting, highly effective agents increasing excretion of urine by acting on the loop of Henle in the kidney
lumbago
pain in the mid- and lower back
lumen
space in the interior of a tubular structure
luteinizing hormone
anterior pituitary hormone stimulating estrogen production by the ovary; promoting formation of progesterone by the corpus luteum in women and stimulating testosterone release in men
luteus
in botany, deep yellow
maceration
herb preparation softened by soaking
macro-
in botany, giant
manager disease
obesity and/or congestive heart failure associated with sedentary lifestyle and high emotional stress
MAO inhibitor
monoamine oxidase inhibitor
mastodynia
breast pain
medulla
in botany, pith
megacolon
massive dilation of the colon
melano-
in botany, black, very dark
Mnire's disease
affliction of the middle ear characterized by vertigo, nausea, vomiting, tinnitus, and progressive deafness
menopause
permanent cessation of menstruation
menorrhagia
abnormally heavy menstrual period
mesenchyma
cells developing into the synovial membrane of a joint
mesenchymal
refers to connective tissue, blood, and lymphatics that originate from embryonic mesoderm
metabolite
any product (foodstuff, intermediate, waste product) of metabolism
meteorism
tympania; swelling of the abdomen from gas in the intestinal or peritoneal cavity
methemoglobinuria
excretion of methemoglobin, a transformation product of hemoglobin, into urine
metrorrhagia
any irregular, acyclic bleeding from the uterus between periods
micro-
in botany, small, little
micturition
urination
migraine
a symptom complex occurring periodically and characterized by pain in the head, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, photophobia, and visual disturbance
milk scall
seborrhea of the scalp in infants; cradle cap
mineralocorticoid
one of the steroids of the adrenal cortex that influences salt (sodium, potassium) metabolism
mitosis
cell division
monoamine oxidase (MAO)
enzyme catalyzing the removal of an amine group from a variety of substrates, including norepinephrine and dopamine
montanus
in botany, of the mountains
motility
capacity for spontaneous movement, frequently in reference to the intestine
mucilage
preparation consisting of a solution in water of the viscous principles of plants; used as a soothing application to mucous membranes
mucolytic
agent breaking down or dissolving mucus
mucosa
mucous tissue layer lining tubular structures (nasal passages, ear canal, etc.)
mucous
containing or producing mucus
mucus
the clear secretion of the muous membrane
multiple sclerosis
demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system, causing patches of sclerosis (plaques) in the brain and spinal cord, manifested by loss of normal neurological functions, e.g., muscle weakness, loss of vision, and mood alterations
muscarine-like effect
having an effect similar to a muscarinic, cholinergic compound; e.g., causing vasodilation, salivation, bronchoconstriction, and gastrointestinal stimulation
muscarinergic cholinoceptors
parasympathetic receptors
musculotropic
affecting, attracted to, or acting upon muscle tissue
mutagenicity
production of genetic alterations
myalgia
diffuse muscle pain
mydriasis
dilation of the pupil
myocardium
heart muscle
myodegenenation
muscular degeneration
myogelosis
a localized hardened mass found in muscle tissue
myoglobinuria
excretion of the muscle's oxygen-transport protein, myoglobin, in the urine
myopathy
any disease or abnormal condition of the muscular tissues
myxedema
a condition arising from diminished thyroid function, characterized by hard swelling of subcutaneous tissue, hair loss, lower temperture, muscle debility, hoarseness and the slow return of a muscle to neutral position after a tendon jerk
native dry extract
an extract, typically hydroalcoholic, of plant material from which the solvent has evaporated to leave a solid residue
natriuretic
agent causing sodium to be excreted into the urine
nausea
symptoms resulting from an inclination to vomit
ne-
in botany, not, free from
necrosis
death of one or more cells, or of a portion of a tissue or organ
neonate
newborn
nephritis
kidney inflammation
nephro-
in botany, kidney-shaped
nephrolithiasis
presence of kidney stones or gravel
nephrosclerosis
hardening of the kidney from overgrowth and contraction of the interstitial connective tissue
nervous bladder
tendency to urinate in response to emotion stress
neuralgia/neuralgic ailment
pain of severe throbbing or stabbing nature along a nerve
neurasthenia
ill-defined condition, accompanying or following depression, characterized by vague fatigue believed to be brought about by psychological factors
neuritis
nerve inflammation
neuroleptic
a therapeutic agent which produces a state of altered awareness and tranquilization
neurotoxic
poisonous to the nerves
neurovegetative (neurovisceral)
referring to the innervation of the internal organs by the autonomic nervous system
nicotine-like effects
producing an effect which stimulates (small doses) and then depresses (large doses) autonomic nervous function
noradrenaline, norepinephrine
a catecholamine hormone secreted from the adrenal medulla and post-ganglionic adrenergic fibers in response to hypotension or emotional stress
NYHA guidelines
New York Heart Association guidelines specifying degrees of heart failure: stage I -no effect on physical performance stage II - performance of patient under major stress is decreased stage III - performance affected even during normal activity but not during rest stage IV - symptoms during rest, no physical stress is possible, patient must remain in bed
ochro-
in botany, yellowish
odonto-
in botany, toothlike
-oideus
in botany, resembling; e.g, helianthoides, resembling the genus Helianthus
ointment
semisolid preparation usually containing medicinal substances and intended for external therapeutic application
oral
by mouth or of the mouth
organ neurosis
dysfunction for which there is no apparent organic cause
ortho-
in botany, straight
orthostatic circulatory disturbance
changes in circulation upon assuming an upright position
osteochondritis
inflammation of a bone and its cartilage
-osus
in botany, abundance; e.g., foliosus, full of leaves
oxy-
in botany, sharp
oxytocin
a peptide hormone from the pituitary that stimulates lactation; used to induce labor, manage postpartum hemorrhage, and reduce painful breast engorgement
oxyurid
pin worm
pachy-
in botany, thick
PAF antagonist
platelet activating factor inhibitor.  PAF activates platelets to secrete serotonin and other mediators to cause smooth-muscle contraction and vascular permeability, involved in asthma; a PAF antagonist counters these effects
pancreatitis
inflammation of the pancreas
papaverine-like
mildly analgesic, powerfully antispasmodic
paracrine
hormonal response from cell to cell near a secretory site
parametritis
inflammation of the tissues adjacent to the uterus
parasympathetic nervous system
portion of the autonomic nervous system that is generally associated with increasing digestion and intestinal muscle activity; decreasing blood circulation and respiration
parasympatholytic
agent, such as atropine, that annuls or antagonizes the effects of the parasympathetic nervous system
parasympathomimetic
drugs or chemicals having an action resembling that caused by stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system, e.g., acetylcholine
parenteral administration
administration by means other than the digestive tract, such as intravenous, subcutaneous, intramuscular, or intramedullary injection
paresth
esia
abnormal sensation, such as burning or prickling
parvi-
in botany, small
pericarditis sicca
fibrinous inflammation of the external surface of the heart and its surrounding membrane without the accumulation of fluid
periodontitis
inflammation of the area around a tooth
periostitis
inflammation of the thick fibrous membrane surrounding a bone
peristalsis
movement characterized by alternate circular contraction and relaxation of the intestine or other tubular structure which propels the contents onward
peritoneum
serous sac lining the abdominal cavity and covering most of the organs inside it
phaeo-
in botany, dark
phagocytosis
process of ingestion and digestion by cells of solid substances such as other cells, bacteria, dead tissue, and foreign particles
phanero-
in botany, easily seen
pharmacokinetics
the study of the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of drugs and other substances in living organisms
pharyngeal
related to the upper expanded portion of the digestive tube, between the esophagus below and the mouth and nasal cavities above and in front
pheochromocytoma
encapsulated tumor of the adrenal gland secreting epinephrine and norepinephrine
phlebectasia
dilation of the veins
phlebitis
inflammation of a vein
phospholipid
a phosphorus-containing lipid; an important constituent of cell membranes
photosensitization
process of increasing sensitivity to sunlight
picro-
in botany, bitter
podo-
in botany, of a foot
polydipsia
chronic excessive thirst
portal circulation
circulation in which the outflow from one organ goes directly to a second organ, most commonly used to refer to the venous circulation of the intestine which goes to the liver
poultice
soft mass prepared by moistening botanicals or other absorbent substances with oil or water, usually applied hot to the skin
proctitis
inflammation of the mucous membranes of the rectum
prodrug
a drug whose actions result from its conversion by metabolic processes within the body
prolactin
an anterior pituitary peptide hormone that initiates and maintains lactation
prostaglandin
any of a class of physiologically active substances present in many tissues, with effects such as vasodilation, vasoconstriction, stimulation of the smooth muscles of the bronchus or intestine, uterine stimulation; also involved in pain, inflammation, fever, allergic diarrhea, and dysmennorhea
prostatectomy
removal of the prostate gland
prothrombin
protein needed for clotting of the blood
pruritis ani
anal itching
pruritus
itching
pseudomelanosis coli
changes in the pigmentation of the colon
psoriasis
inherited condition characterized by the eruption of reddish, scaled papules on the skin of the elbows, knees, scalp, and trunk
psychoanaleptic drugs
central nervous system stimulants that reverse depression
psychogenic
of a psychological origin
ptycho-
in botany, pertaining to grooves or folds
pulmonary edema
accumulation of fluid in the lung
pungent principles
essential oils imparting odor
purpura
bleeding into the tissues directly beneath skin or mucous membranes
pustule
small elevation of the skin containing pus
pyelonephritis
inflammation of the renal pelvis
pylorospasm
abnormal contraction of the lower sphincter of the stomach
pyretic
fever-inducing agent
pyro-
in botany, fiery
pyrrho-
in botany, fire red, ruby red
rachis
in botany, axis
radiculitis
disorders of the roots of the nerves
radix
in botany, root
rami-
in botany, pertaining to branches
ramus
in botany, branch
ranunculus dermatitis
type of dermatitis resulting from contact of skin with plants of the genus Ranunculus
Raynaud's disease
neurovascular disorder characterized by local vascular contractions resulting in attacks of decreased blood flow to the extremities upon exposure to cold
rectification
purification, usually through repeated steam distillations
resin
amorphous brittle substance consisting of the hardened secretion of a various plants, typically derived from the oxidation of terpenes
retina
receptive field of the eye
retinal edema
accumulation of fluid in the retina
rhagades
chaps, cracks, or fissures
rheological
deformative flow of materials, usually blood
rheumatism
general term applied to conditions of pain, or inability to articulate, various elements of the musculoskeletal system
rhinitis
inflammation of the nasal mucous membrane
rhizome
in botany, underground stem
rhodo-
in botany, rose-colored
rickets
vitamin-D deficiency characterized by abnormal calcification of bone tissues
roborant
strengthening agent, tonic
Roemheld's syndrome
gastro-cardiac syndrome
root
an absorbing and anchoring organ of the plant, usually developed from the radicle and growing downward
roseus
in botany, rosy
rubefacient
reddening agent, usually in reference to a counter-irritant
saluretic
substance increasing elimination of salts into the urine
sapro-
in botany, rotten
sativus
in botany, cultivated
scabies
skin eruption due to a mite
scar tissue
fibrous tissue replacing normal tissues destroyed by injury or disease
schisto-
in botany, split, cleft
sciatica
pain in the lower back and hip radiating down the back of the thigh into the leg, often due to herniated lumbar disk
seborrhea
, seborrheic skin disease
skin inflammation characterized by dry or moist, greasy, yellow crusts or scales
secretagogue
agent promoting secretion
secretolytic
agent breaking down secretions
secretomotory
stimulating secretion
sedative
calming, quieting; drug that quiets nervous excitement
seed
mature ovule of seed plants
semper-
in botany, always
sequalae
consequences, subsequent events
sexual neurasthenia
psychogenic inhibition of sexual performance
sitz bath
immersion bath
soporific
sleep-inducing agent
spasm
involuntary contraction of one or more muscle groups
spondylarthritis
intervertebral arthritis
spondylitis
inflammation of one or more vertebrae
static edema
fluid accumulation in condition of confinement
status lymphaticus
thymicolymphaticus, old term for a syndrome of supposed enlargement of the thymus and lymph nodes in infants and young children, formerly believed to be associated with unexplained sudden death
stem
a supporting and conducting organ usually developed initially from the epicotyl and growing upward
steno-
in botany, narrow
stenocardia
angina pectoris
stenosis
(esophageal, GI tract)
narrowing
stipule
in botany, stalk
stolon
stem
stomachic
agent that improves appetite and digeston
stomach-strengthening remedy
stomachic
stomatitis
inflammation of the mucous membrane of the mouth
strobile
in botany, a conelike inflorescence, as in hops
strongyloid
nematode parasite
struma
goiter, any enlargement of a tissue
subsidence
sinking or settling in bone, as in the case of prosthetic component of an artificial joint
sunburn
reddening of the skin, with or without blistering, caused by exposure to ultraviolet light
sympathetic nervous system
portion of the autonomic nervous system that is generally associated with flight or fight reactions by increasing blood circulation and respiration and decreasing digestion
sympathomimetic effect
mimicking the action of the sympathetic nervous system
synergistic
having the property that the total combined effect of two or more factors exceeds the sum of their individual effects
syrup
a liquid preparation of medicinal substances in a concentrated aqueous solution of sucrose
systole
contraction of the heart
T4
thyroxine, thyroid hormone also prepared synthetically, for treatment of hypothyroidism and myxedema
tachycardia
excessively rapid heart rate
tachyphylaxis
progressive decrease in response following repetitive administration of a pharmacologically or physiologically active substance
tea
an infusion made by pouring boiling water over plant material and allowing to steep for a period of time
tendovaginitis
inflammation of a tendon and its sheath
tenesmus
painful spasm of the anal sphincter accompanied by an urgent desire to evacuate the bowel or bladder, involuntary straining, and the passage of little fecal matter or urine
tenui-
in botany, slender
teratogenic
causing abnormal embryonic growth processes
teratogenicity
property of an agent that causes physical defects in the developing embryo
testa
in botany, seed coat
thermolabile
altered or destroyed by heat
thiazide
a class of diuretics that increase the excretion of sodium and chloride and accompanying volume of water
thrombasthenia
platelet defect with impaired ability to form blood clots
thrombocyte
platelet
thrombocytopenia
condition of abnormally small number of platelets circulating in the blood, characterized by inability to properly clot blood and easy bruising
thrombophlebitis
venous inflammation with formation of clots
thrombosis
formation of blood clots causing vascular obstruction
thyrotoxicosis
state produced by excessive thyroid hormone
tincture
an alcohol or water-alcohol solution, usually referring to a preparation from herbal materials
tinnitus
ringing or roaring in the ear
T-lymphocyte
long-lived white blood cell responsible for cell-mediated immunity
tonic
remedy utilized to restore strength and vigor; typically taken for an extended period of time
tonic for the kidneys
diuretic
toniclonic
a muscle spasm which is both tonic, occurring over an extended period of time, and clonic, marked by contractions and relaxations of the muscle occurring in rapid succession
topical application
administration to the skin
tracheobronchitis
inflammation of the mucous membrane of the trachea and bronchi
trigeminal neuralgi
a
pain in the trigeminus, chief sensory nerve of the face and the motor nerve enabling chewing
tuberculosis
a specific disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which may affect almost any tissue or organ of the body, most commonly the lungs
ulcer
lesion on the skin or mucous membrane
ulcus cruris
indolent leg ulcer, ulcer of the diaphragm
uremia
condition characterized by excessive urea and other nitrogen compounds in the blood due to renal insufficiency
uric acid diathesis
inherited tendency to gout
urinary calculi
concretions in the urethra
urticaria
hives, vascular reaction of upper layers of skin marked by wheals
-utus
in botany, possessing; e.g., cornutus, having horns
varicosis
unnatural and permanent distention of the veins
vascular dementia
mental incapacity due to inadequate blood flow to the brain
vasodilator
agent causing widening of the lumen (interior space) of blood vessels
vasomotor cephalalgia
migraine headache
vasomotor dysfunction
disorder involving blood vessel constriction
vasoneurosis
vascular abnormality without discernible physiological cause
vegetative dystonia
abnormal tissue tonicity resulting from autonomic nervous system dysfunction
vegetative nervous system
portion of the nervous system associated with involuntary functions; autonomic nervous system
venectasia
phlebectasia, dilation of the veins
venous tone
firmness of tension of vascular walls
ventricular tachycardia
excessively rapid heart beat due to uncontrolled ectopic focus in the ventricle
vermifuge
agent used to treat worm infestation
vernalis
in botany, of the spring
vertigo
dizziness
vesicle
small sac
villi
small processes protruding from absorptive or secretory surfaces
virens
in botany, green
virustatic
inhibiting viral action
viti-
in botany, pertaining to a vine
volatile oil
easily evaporated terpene derivatives found in plants which impart taste and aroma
vomit
to eject matter from the stomach through the mouth
vulgaris
in botany, common
whooping cough
cough characterized by spasm of the larynx; pertussis
xantho-
in botany, yellow
xylo-
in botany, woody
zygo-
in botany, joined
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